Nitric Oxide Modulates the Expression of Proteins and Promotes Epiphyllous Bud Differentiation in Kalanchoe pinnata
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Nitric oxide (NO), a recent addition to the signaling molecules in plants, plays an important role in mediating both biotic and abiotic stress responses. The occurrence of reproductive/vegetative structures, known as epiphylly, on the surface of leaves is a stress survival mechanism exhibited by some plants, including Kalanchoe pinnata. In the present study the role of NO during epiphyllous bud differentiation was investigated. NO donors l-arginine, NaNO2, and SNP promoted epiphyllous bud differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas NO inhibitors reversed the effect, suggesting the involvement of NO in the process. Albeit numerous physiological processes are reported to be modulated by NO, but their correlation with NO-responsive genes and proteins needs to be established. To address this issue, NO-responsive proteins (NORPs) were identified using 2D-PAGE and MS analysis. Major NORPs that were identified belonged to photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, signaling, and stress metabolism, aptly indicating their probable role in this stress-induced growth process. The present study clearly indicates the role of NO in this stress survival mechanism, thus strongly affirming its role in stress responses.
KeywordsEpiphyllous response Kalanchoe pinnata Nitric oxide Nitric oxide responsive proteins Stress tolerance
The research work was supported by a research grant to R.D. from University Grants Commission, Government of India [F.30-122/2004(SR)], and by a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Fellowship to J.K.A.
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