Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 382–391 | Cite as

ACC Oxidase and ACC Synthase Expression Profiles after Leaning of Young Radiata (P. radiata D. Don) and Maritime Pine (P. pinaster Ait.) Seedlings

  • Patricio Ramos
  • Claudio Valenzuela
  • Gregoire le Provost
  • Christophe Plomion
  • Carlos Gantz
  • Maria A. Moya-León
  • Raul Herrera


Loss of verticality in conifers affects the normal wood development by inducing changes and chemical modifications in tree stems called compression wood. It is known that ethylene influences the response during this abnormal wood-forming process. The expression pattern of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway during gravitropic response in gymnosperms has been identified in adult trees. Young seedlings of radiata pine were inclined to reveal the expression pattern of these genes by the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technique. The seedlings were exposed to gravitropic stimuli and harvested after 2.5 and 10 h (early responses) of inclination, and after 24 h (late response). Sampling includes transverse cuts at three heights of the whole stem of inclined seedlings. Our data revealed that genes encoding for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) were differentially expressed during the time of leaning, and, interestingly, at the basal portion of radiata pine stems. Additionally, transcriptional analysis in maritime pine showed a conserved profile of gene activation in conifers, and in mature compression wood, ACO gene transcription was strongly upregulated. These results indicate that the concerted activation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis could be responding to leaning signals in young radiata and maritime pine seedlings.


ACC oxidase ACC synthase Ethylene biosynthesis Gravitropism Pinus radiata 



This project was supported by FONDECYT (1071026), DIAT (Universidad de Talca), PBCT Anillo (ACT-41), Ecos-Conicyt (CB07-01), and postdoctoral PBCT-PSD61 projects. PR and CV thank Conicyt and Universidad de Talca, respectively, for Doctoral fellowships.

Supplementary material

344_2011_9248_MOESM1_ESM.doc (68 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 68 kb)
344_2011_9248_MOESM2_ESM.tif (2 mb)
Supplementary Figure 1. Amino acid alignment analysis of radiate pine ACO contigs. ACC oxidases obtained from P. radiata were aligned with ACC oxidases from other plant species, showing that they shared conserved motifs important for their catalytic function. Regions of high similarity are in black and the conserved residues involved in Fe2+ binding (two histidines, aspartate, arginine and serine) are indicated by asterisks (*). Additionally, black dots indicate the conserved amino acids necessary to coordinate Fe and ascorbate present in all ACC oxidases. Sequences were aligned using Bioedit Sequence Alignment Editor v7.0. Sequences correspond to GenBank accession numbers: PtACO1 (P. taeda, ADD65762), PpACO (P. pinaster, CBL95267), PttACO1 (P. tremula x P. Tremuloides, AAN87846), AtACO1 (A. thaliana, NP179549), SlACO1 (S. lycopersicum, P05116), NtACO1 (N. tabacum, CAA67119), MdACO1 (Malus x domestica, CAA67216) and Pglauca (P. glauca, AAA85365). (TIFF 1999 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricio Ramos
    • 1
  • Claudio Valenzuela
    • 1
  • Gregoire le Provost
    • 2
  • Christophe Plomion
    • 2
  • Carlos Gantz
    • 3
    • 4
  • Maria A. Moya-León
    • 1
  • Raul Herrera
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Biología Vegetal y BiotecnologíaUniversidad de TalcaTalcaChile
  2. 2.Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)CestasFrance
  3. 3.Forestal MinincoLos AngelesChile
  4. 4.Gerente de Propagación y Mejoramiento GenéticoGreenWood Resources Chile SALos AngelesChile

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