Micropropagation of Wild Service Tree (Sorbus torminalis [L.] Crantz): The Regulative Role of Different Aromatic Cytokinins During Organogenesis

  • Jana Malá
  • Pavlína Máchová
  • Helena Cvrčková
  • Michal Karady
  • Ondřej Novák
  • Jaromír Mikulík
  • Eva Hauserová
  • Jarmila Greplová
  • Miroslav Strnad
  • Karel DoležalEmail author


The influences of three different aromatic cytokinin derivatives [6-benzylaminopurine, meta-topolin, and 6-(3-methoxybenzylamino)purine-9-ß-D-ribofuranoside (MeOBAPR)] on in vitro multiplication and rhizogenesis of the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis [L.] Crantz) were compared. The highest micropropagation rate (24 new shoots per explant after 3 months of cultivation) was achieved on media containing BAP. On the other hand, the best rooting microcuttings were those multiplied on a medium containing MeoBAPR. To compare these results with the levels of endogenous cytokinins in multiplied explants, a newly developed UPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS method was used to determine levels of 50 cytokinin metabolites in explants cultivated 12 weeks on media supplemented by BAP and of the two other aromatic cytokinin analogs used. Several significant differences among the levels of endogenous cytokinins, extracted from the explants, were found. The concentration of BAP9G, an important metabolite suspected to be responsible for inhibition of rooting and acclimatization problems of newly formed plantlets, was found to be the highest in microcuttings grown on media supplemented with BAP. This agrees well with the results of our rooting experiments; the lowest percentages of rooted plantlets 6 weeks after transferring shoots on rooting medium were present on explants multiplied on BAP. In contrast, BAP was still the most effective for the induction of bud formation on primary explants. Levels of the most active endogenous isoprenoid cytokinins, tZ, tZR, and iPR, as well as O-glucosides were also suppressed in explants grown on BAP compared with those of explants treated with other cytokinin derivatives. This may be the result of a very high BAP uptake into the explants grown on this cytokinin. On the other hand, endogenous concentrations of cis-zeatin derivatives as well as dihydrozeatin derivatives were not affected. Differences in the production of another plant hormone, ethylene, that plays an important role in controlling organogenesis in tissue culture, were also observed among S. torminalis plantlets grown in vitro on media containing different cytokinins tested. The highest ethylene levels were detected in the vessels containing media supplemented with mT. They were two to four times higher compared with the production by the S. torminalis explants cultivated on other media used. Finally, the levels of free IAA were also determined in the explants. S. torminalis plantlets grown on media containing BAP contained the lowest level of auxin, which is again in good agreement with their loss of rooting capacity. The results found in this study about optimal plant hormone concentrations may be used to improve in vitro rooting efficiency of the wild service tree and possibly also of other plant species.


Wild service tree Micropropagation Rooting Cytokinins Ethylene IAA 



















9-β-d-ribofuranosyl derivative


9-β-d-glucopyranosyl derivative


O-β-d-glucopyranosyl derivative


5′-Monophosphate derivative


Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry


Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray mass spectrometry


Murashige-Skoog medium


Indole-3-acetic acid


Indole-3-butyric acid


α-Naphthylacetic acid



This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (GA 206/07/0570), by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (MZE 0002070203), and the Czech Ministry of Education (MSM 6198959216, 1M06030). We thank Petra Amakorová for her skilled technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jana Malá
    • 1
  • Pavlína Máchová
    • 1
  • Helena Cvrčková
    • 1
  • Michal Karady
    • 2
  • Ondřej Novák
    • 2
  • Jaromír Mikulík
    • 2
  • Eva Hauserová
    • 2
  • Jarmila Greplová
    • 2
  • Miroslav Strnad
    • 2
  • Karel Doležal
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Forest and Game ManagementJílovištěCzech Republic
  2. 2.Laboratory of Growth RegulatorsPalacký University, and Institute of Experimental Botany, AS CROlomouc-HoliceCzech Republic

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