Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 194–202

The Occurrence and Economic Impact of Plasmodiophora brassicae and Clubroot Disease

Article

Abstract

The significance of Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin and clubroot disease which it incites in members of the family Brassicaceae is reviewed as the focus for this special edition of the Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. This is a monographic treatment of recent research into the pathogen and disease; previous similar treatments are now well over half a century old. Vernacular nomenclature of the disease indicates that it had a well-established importance in agriculture and horticulture from at least the Middle Ages onward in Europe and probably earlier. Subsequently, the pathogen probably spread worldwide as a result of transfer on and in fodder taken by colonists as livestock feed. It is a moot point, however, whether there was much earlier spread by P. brassicae into China and subsequently Japan as Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage and many variants) colonized those lands in archaeological time. Symptoms, worldwide distribution, and economic impact are briefly described here to provide a basis for understanding subsequent papers. Clubroot disease devastates both infected field and protected vegetable and agricultural Brassica crops. Particular importance is placed on recent reports of crop losses in tropical countries, albeit where the crops are grown in cooler altitudes, and in the Canadian prairie land canola crops. The latter is of enormous importance because this crop is the single most important and essential source of vegetable oils used in human foodstuffs and in industrial lubricants where mineral oils are inappropriate.

Keywords

Plasmodiophora brassicae Clubroot disease Vernacular nomenclature Symptoms Worldwide distribution Economic impact 

References

  1. Anon (1987) Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. APPPC Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional FAO Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA)Google Scholar
  2. Anon (1996) Plant quaratine report (PQR) database. European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO), Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey LH (1961) Manual of cultivated plants. MacMillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Belec C, Tremblay N, Coulombe J (2004) Liming and calcium cyanamide for clubroot control in cauliflower. Acta Hort 635:41–46Google Scholar
  5. Cicu (2006) Clubroot disease (Plasmodiophora brassicae) on crucifers and its control. J Penel Pengemb Pertan 25(1):16–21Google Scholar
  6. Colhoun J (1958) Clubroot disease of crucifers caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron. A monograph. Phytopathological Paper No 3. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Surrey, UKGoogle Scholar
  7. Commonwealth Mycological Institute (1977) Distribution maps of plant diseases, no. 101, 3rd edn. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Crête R (1981) Worldwide importance of clubroot. Clubroot Newslett No. 11, pp 6–7Google Scholar
  9. Daowang S, Jialuan Y, Mingying Y, Weizhong Y (2004) Decreasing yield loss and residual analysis using 75% Dacotech in controlling cabbage clubroot. Southwest China J Agric Sci 17(2):189–191Google Scholar
  10. Dixon GR (1974) Testing Brassica cultivars for resistance to a range of fungal diseases. In: Proceedings of the Eucarpia conference, Dundee, October 1974. Scottish Crop Research Institute, pp 108–119Google Scholar
  11. Dixon GR (1976a) Assessment keys for the evaluation of seedling and adult plant symptoms of clubroot. Keys 3.1.2 and 3.1.3. In: Manual of plant growth stages and disease assessment keys. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Dixon GR (1976b) Methods used in Western Europe and USA for testing Brassica seedling resistance to clubroot. Plant Pathol 25:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dixon GR (1981) Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot) and epidemic development and the measurement of disease levels. In: Vegetable crop diseases. MacMillan, London, pp 137–142, 145–166Google Scholar
  14. Dixon GR (1984) Plant pathogens and their control in horticulture. MacMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Dixon GR (2006) The biology of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.—a review of recent advances. Acta Hort 706:271–282Google Scholar
  16. Dixon GR (2007) Vegetable brassicas and related crucifers. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Donald C, Porter I (2003) Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) an imminent threat to the Australian canola industry. In: Proceedings of the 13th biennial research assembly on brassicas. New South Wales Agriculture, pp 114–118Google Scholar
  18. Garrett SD (1956) Biology of root infecting fungi. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. Jing W, Yun H, Xiaoling H, Yingze N, Xiaolan L, Yong L (2008) Study of symptoms, yield loss of clubroot and modality of Plasmodiophora brassicae in rape. Chin J Oil Seed Sci 30(1):112–115Google Scholar
  20. Karling JS (1968) The Plasmodiophorales, 2nd edn. Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Large EC, Doling DA (1962) The measurement of cereal mildew and its effect on yield. Plant Pathol 11:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Madden LV, Hughes G, van den Bosch F (2008) The study of plant disease epidemics. The American Phytopathological Society, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  23. McDonald MR, Kornatowski B, McKeown AW (2004) Management of clubroot in Asian brassica crops grown on organic soils. Acta Hort 635:25–30Google Scholar
  24. Morrison D (1977) Preliminary report on turnip and swede surveys, 1975/1976. In: Proceedings of the brassica fodder crops conference, Scottish Agricultural Development Council, Scottish Plant Breeding Station (now Scottish Crop Research Institute), DundeeGoogle Scholar
  25. Pageau D, Lajeunesse J, Lafond J (2006) Impact of clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) on the yield and quality of canola. Can J Plant Pathol 28(1):137–143Google Scholar
  26. Samuel G, Garrett SD (1945) The infected root hair count for estimating the activity of Plasmodiophora brassicae in the soil. Ann Appl Biol 32:96–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tanaka S, Mizui Y, Terasaki H, Sakamoto Y, Ito S (2006) Distribution of clubroot disease of a cruciferous weed Cardamine flexuosa in major isolated islands, Hokkaido and Okinawa in Japan. Mycoscience 47(2):72–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tewari JP, Strelkov SE, Orchard D, Hartman M, Lange RM, Turkington TK (2005) Identification of clubroot on canola (Brassica napus) in Alberta. Can J Plant Pathol 27(1):143–144Google Scholar
  29. Timila RD, Correll JC, Duwadi VR (2008) Severe and widespread clubroot epidemics in Nepal. Plant Dis 92(2):317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Toxopeus H, Dixon GR, Mattusch P (1986) Physiologic specialisation in Plasmodiophora brassicae: an analysis by international experimentation. Mycol Res 87:279–287Google Scholar
  31. Wallenhammar AC (1996) Prevalence of Plasmodiophora brassicae in spring oil-seed rape growing area in Central Sweden and factors influencing soil infestation levels. Plant Pathol 45:710–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Woronin M (1878) Plasmodiophora brassicae, Urheber der Kohlpflanzen - Hernie. Jahrb Wiss Bot 11:548-574 [translated by Chupp C (1934) Phytopathological classics no 4. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul]Google Scholar
  33. Yamada M, Asandhi AA, Purwati E, Dianawati M (2004) Control of cabbage clubroot disease by employing one-year rotation with three vegetable combinations in the West Java highlands of Indonesia. JIRCAS working report from Japan International Centre for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan, issue no. 43, pp 175–184Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Horticulture and Landscape, School of Biological SciencesThe University of Reading, WhiteknightsReadingUK

Personalised recommendations