Interaction Between Polyamine and Nitric Oxide Signaling in Adaptive Responses to Drought in Cucumber
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The effect of polyamines (PAs) on nitric oxide (NO) generation was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Dar) primary leaves using bio-imaging with an NO-selective fluorophor, DAF-2DA. Seedlings pretreated with PAs and subjected to water deficit showed early (after 5 h) and transient NO production. The amplitude of the response depended on the form of the applied polyamine. Spermine (1.0 mM) and spermidine (1.0 mM) induced higher NO-dependent fluorescence compared with putrescine (1.0 mM) and the control. The NO production was blocked by tungstate, an inhibitor of nitrate reductase, and partially by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS-like) enzymes. NO donor administration preceding drought had no effect on endogenous PA levels but was positively correlated with an alleviation of water deficit-induced membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation. Application of 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a membrane-permeable NO scavenger, markedly reversed the NO donor effects. Similarly, pretreating seedlings with PAs resulted in lower ion leakage from the membrane and modified lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that NO may act downstream of PAs in cucumber seedlings under water stress.