Divergence time, historical biogeography and evolutionary rate estimation of the order Bangiales (Rhodophyta) inferred from multilocus data
- 49 Downloads
Bangiales is the only order of the Bangiophyceae and has been suggested to be monophyletic. This order contains approximately 190 species and is distributed worldwide. Previous molecular studies have produced robust phylogenies among the red algae, but the divergence times, historical biogeography and evolutionary rates of Bangiales have rarely been studied. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bangiales were examined using the concatenated gene sets from all available organellar genomes. This analysis has revealed the topology (((Bangia, Porphyra) Pyropia) Wildemania). Molecular dating indicates that Bangiales diversified approximately 246.40 million years ago (95% highest posterior density (HPD)=194.78–318.24 Ma, posterior probability (PP)=0.99) in the Late Permian and Early Triassic, and that the ancestral species most likely originated from eastern Gondwanaland (currently New Zealand and Australia) and subsequently began to spread and evolve worldwide. Based on pairwise comparisons, we found a slower rate of nucleotide substitutions and lower rates of diversification in Bangiales relative to Florideophyceae. Compared with Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants), the evolutionary rates of Bangiales and other Rhodophyte groups were found to be dramatically faster, by more than 3-fold for plastid genome (ptDNA) and 15-fold for mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). In addition, an average 2.5-fold lower dN/dS was found for the algae than for the land plants, which indicates purifying selection of the algae.
KeywordBangiales phylogenetics divergence time historical biogeography evolutionary rate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Chumakov N M, Zharkov M A. 2002. Climate during Permian-Triassic biosphere reorganizations, Article 1: climate of the early Permian. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 10 (6): 586–602.Google Scholar
- Conway E, Mumford Jr T F, Scagel R F. 1975. The genus Porphyra in British Columbia and Washington. Syesis, 8: 8–185.Google Scholar
- Dumont H J, Vanfleteren J R, De Jonckheere J F, Weekers P H H. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships, divergence time estimation, and global biogeographic patterns of calopterygoid damselflies (Odonata, Zygoptera) inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. Systematic Biology, 54 (3): 347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hagopian J C, Reis M, Kitajima J P, Bhattacharya D, de Oliveira M C. 2004. Comparative analysis of the complete plastid genome sequence of the red alga Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui provides insights into the evolution of rhodoplasts and their relationship to other plastids. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 59 (4): 464–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kimura M. 1984. The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Milstein D, Oliveira M C, Martins F M, Matioli S R. 2008. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the eastern coast of South America. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8: 308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ogg J G, Agterberg F, Gradstein F. 2004. A geologic time scale 2004. In: Abstracts with Programs-Geological Society of America, 36: 74.Google Scholar
- Sutherland J E, Lindstrom S C, Nelson W A, Brodie J, Lynch M D J, Hwang M S, Choi H G, Miyata M, Kikuchi N, Oliveira M C, Farr T, Neefus C, Mols-Mortensen A, Milstein D, Müller K M. 2011. A new look at an ancient order: generic revision of the Bangiales (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology, 47 (5): 1 131–1 151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Swofford D L. 2003. PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (and Other Methods), Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
- Yang E C, Kim K M, Kim S Y, Lee J, Boo G H, Lee J H, Nelson W A, Yi G M, Schmidt W E, Fredericq S, Boo S M, Bhattacharya D, Yoon H S. 2015. Highly conserved mitochondrial genomes among multicellular red algae of the Florideophyceae. Genome Biology and Evolution, 7 (8): 2 394–2 406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar