Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 871–884 | Cite as

Impact of two typhoons on the marine environment in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

  • Dongyang Fu (付东洋)
  • Hong Luan (栾虹)
  • Delu Pan (潘德炉)
  • Ying Zhang (张莹)
  • Li’an Wang (王立安)
  • Dazhao Liu (刘大召)
  • Youzhuan Ding (丁又专)
  • Xue Li (李薛)
Physics

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of two typhoons (Nari and Wipha) on sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration. Typhoons Nari and Wipha passed through the Yellow Sea on September 13, 2007 and the East China Sea (ECS) on September 16, 2007, respectively. The SST and Chl-a data were obtained from the Aqua/Terra MODIS and NOAA18, respectively, and the temperature and salinity in the southeast of the study area were observed in situ from Argo. The average SST within the study area dropped from 26.33°C on September 10 to a minimum of 22.79°C on September 16. Without the usual phenomenon of ‘right bias’, the most striking response of SST was in the middle of the typhoons’ tracks, near to coastal waters. Strong cooling of the upper layers of the water column was probably due to increased vertical mixing, discharge from the Changjiang River estuary, and heavy rainfall. During the typhoons, average Chl-a increased by 11.54% within the study area and by 21.69% in the offshore area near to the southeast ECS. From September 1 to 13, average Chl-a was only 0.10 mg/m3 in the offshore waters but it reached a peak of >0.17 mg/m3 on September 18. This large increase in Chl-a concentration in offshore waters might have been triggered by strong vertical mixing, upwelling induced by strong typhoons, and sedimentation and nutrient influx following heavy rainfall.

Keywords

typhoon Yellow Sea East China Sea chlorophyll-a concentration sea surface temperature 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acker J G, Brown C W, Hine A C et al. 2002. Satellite remote sensing observations and aerial photography of storminduced neritic carbonate transport from shallow carbonate platforms. Int. J. Remote Sens., 23 (14): 2853–2868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acker J, Lyon P, Hoge F et al. 2009. Interaction of Hurricane Katrina with optically complex water in the Gulf of Mexico: interpretation using satellite-derived inherent optical properties and chlorophyll concentration. IEEE Geosc. Remote Sens. Lett., 6 (2): 209–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babin S M, Carton J A, Dickey T D et al. 2004. Satellite evidence of hurricane-induced phytoplankton blooms in an oceanic desert. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 109 (C3): C03043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrenfeld M J, O’Malley R T, Siegel D A et al. 2006. Climatedriven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature, 444 (7120): 752–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang J, Chung C C, Gong G C. 1996. Influences of cyclones on chlorophyll a concentration and Synechococcus abundance in a subtropical western Pacific coastal ecosystem. Mar. Ecol — Prog. Ser., 140 (1-3): 199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen C T A, Liu C T, Chuang W S et al. 2003. Enhanced buoyancy and hence upwelling of subsurface Kuroshio waters after a typhoon in the southern East China Sea. J. Mar. Syst., 42 (1-2): 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi Y S, Ho C H, Kim J et al. 2008. The impact of aerosols on the summer rainfall frequency in China. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 47 (6): 1802–1813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chu C. 1979. Physical Geography of China-Ocean Geography. Science Press, Beijing, China. p.6–14. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Dickey T, Frye D, Mcneil J et al. 1998. Upper-ocean temperature response to Hurricane Felix as measured by the Bermuda Testbed Mooring. Mon. Weather Rev., 126 (5): 1195–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fu D Y, Ding Y Z, Liu D Z et al. 2009a. Delayed effect of typhoon on marine chlorophyll-a concentration. Journal of Tropical Oceanography, 28 (2): 15–21. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  11. Fu D Y, Pan D L, Ding Y Z et al. 2008. Statistic study of effect of the sea surface temperature caused by typhoon based on remote sensing. Proc. SPIE, 7153, http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.804901.Google Scholar
  12. Fu D Y, Pan D L, Mao Z H et al. 2009b. The effects of chlorophyll-a and SST in the South China Sea area by typhoon near last decade. Proc. SPIE, 7478, http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.830215.Google Scholar
  13. Fu D Y, Pan D L, Wang D F et al. 2014. The analysis of phytoplankton blooms off the Yangtze River Estuary in the spring of 2007. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health. Manag., 17 (3): 221–232.Google Scholar
  14. Gabric A J, Parslow J. 1989. Effect of physical factors on the vertical distribution of phytoplankton in eutrophic coastal waters. Mar. Freshwater Res., 40 (5): 559–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hazelworth J B. 1968. Water temperature variations resulting from hurricanes. J. Geophys. Res., 73 (16): 5105–5123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoge F E, Lyon P E. 2002. Satellite observation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) variability in the wake of hurricanes and typhoons. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (19): 14-1–14-4.Google Scholar
  17. Hu C, Muller-Karger F E. 2007. Response of sea surface properties to Hurricane Dennis in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 (7): L07606, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028935.Google Scholar
  18. Kara A B, Rochford P A, Hurlburt H E. 2000. An optimal definition for ocean mixed layer depth. J. Geophys. Res., 105 (C7): 16803–16821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lei H, Pan D L, Tao B Y et al. 2009. The spectral absorption and distribution characteristics of CDOM in the typical waters of the East China Sea. Acta Oceanol. Sin ica, 31 (2): 57–62.Google Scholar
  20. Li F, Zhang C Z. 2013. Analysis on the relationship between PM2.5 and the precipitation in Xi’an. Environmental Monitoring in China, 29 (6): 22–28. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  21. Lin I I, Liu W T, Wu C C. 2003a. Satellite observations of modulation of surface winds by typhoon-induced upper ocean cooling. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (3): 1131–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin I I, Liu W T, Wu C C. 2003b. New evidence for enhanced ocean primary production triggered by tropical cyclone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (13): 1718–1722.Google Scholar
  23. Liu K K, Peng T H, Shaw P T et al. 2003. Circulation and biogeochemical processes in the East China Sea and the vicinity of Taiwan: an overview and a brief synthesis. Deep. Sea. Res. Pt. II, 50 (6-7): 1055–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu X M, Wang M H, Shi W. 2009. A study of a hurricane katrina-induced phytoplankton bloom using satellite observations and model simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 114 (C3): C3023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu X. 2014. Seasonal Variation Research of Suspended Sediments in the East China Sea Based on Remote Sensing. Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. p.1–69. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  26. Ma H P. 2014. The study on Characteristics and Distribution of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. p.1–91. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. Miller W D, Harding Jr L W, Adol J E. 2006. Hurricane Isabel generated an unusual fall bloom in Chesapeake Bay. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 (6): L06612.Google Scholar
  28. Morel A, Prieur L. 1977. Analysis of variations in ocean color 1. Limnol. Oceanogr., 22 (4): 709–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Reilly J E, Maritorena S, Mitchell B G et al. 1998. Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (C11): 24937–24953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pan D L, Haung H, Mao T et al. 1999. Ocean color remote sensing by SeaWiFS in China, paper presented at 20th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing. Asian Assoc. Remote Sens., Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  31. Prasad T G, Hogan P J. 2007. Upper-ocean response to Hurricane Ivan in a 1/25° nested Gulf of Mexico HYCOM. J. Geophysl. Res., 112 (C4): C04013.Google Scholar
  32. Price J F. 1981. Upper ocean response to a hurricane. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11 (2): 153–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pu X M, Wu Y L, Zhang Y S. 2000. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in the Changjiang Estuary, I. Condition in nutrient limitation in autumn. Acta Oceanol. Sin ica, 22 (4): 60–66. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  34. Quan Q, Mao X Y, Yang X D et al. 2013. Seasonal variation of several main water masses in the Southern Yellow Sea and East China Sea in 2011. J. Ocean Univ. China, 12 (4): 524–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shi W, Wang M H. 2007. Observations of a Hurricane Katrinainduced phytoplankton bloom in the Gulf of Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 (11): L11607, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029724.Google Scholar
  36. Shi W, Wang M H. 2011. Satellite observations of asymmetrical physical and biological responses to Hurricane Earl. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38 (4): L04607.Google Scholar
  37. Shi W, Wang M H. 2012. Satellite views of the BoHai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. Prog. Oceanogr., 104 (10): 30–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stramma L, Cornillon P, Price J F. 1986. Satellite observations of sea surface cooling by hurricanes. J. Geophys. Res., 91 (C4): 5031–5035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Su J L. 2005. Coastal Waters Hydrology of China. China Ocean Press, Beijing, China. p.42–50. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Tang D L, Di B P, Wei G F et al. 2006a. Spatial, seasonal and species variations of harmful algal blooms in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Hydrobiologia, 568 (1): 245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tang D L, Kawamura H, Doan-Nhu H, Takahashi W. 2004a. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) offthe coast of southeastern Vietnam. J. Geophys. Res., 109 (C3): C03014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003JC002045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tang D L, Kawamura H, Lee M A, Dien T V. 2003. Seasonal and spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentrations and water conditions in the Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea. Remote Sens. Environ., 85 (4): 475–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tang D L, Kawamura H, Luis A J. 2002. Short-term variability of phytoplankton blooms associated with a cold eddy in the northwestern Arabian Sea. Remote Sens. Environ., 81 (1): 82–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tang D L, Kawamura H, Shi P et al. 2006b. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula. J. Geophys. Res., 111 (G1): G01010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tang D L, Kawamura H, van Dien T, Lee M A. 2004b. Offshore phytoplankton biomass increase and its oceanographic causes in the South China Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 268: 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Walker N D, Leben R R, Balasubramanian S. 2005. Hurricaneforced upwelling and chlorophyll a enhancement within cold-core cyclones in the Gulf of Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 (18): L18610, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023716.Google Scholar
  47. Wang B D. 2003. Nutrient distributions and their limitation on phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. J. Appl. Ecol., 14 (7): 1122–1126. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  48. Wang D X, Zhao H. 2008. Estimation of phytoplankton responses to Hurricane Gonu over the Arabian Sea based on ocean color data. Sensors, 8 (8): 4878–4893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang F, Kang J C, Zhou S Z et al. 2008. Nitrate and phosphate conditions and fishery resources in the offshore area of the East China Sea. Resources Sci ence, 30 (10): 1592–1599. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  50. Wang K, Chen J F, Li H L et al. 2012. The influence of freshwater-saline water mixing on phytoplankton growth in Changjiang Estuary. Acta Oceanol Sin ica, 32 (1): 17–26. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  51. Wen T T. 2010. Preliminary Study Of Nutrients in Yellow Sea and the East China Sea and the Cold Eddy northeast of Taiwan. Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. p.1–109. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  52. Wren P A, Leonard L A. 2005. Sediment transport on the midcontinental shelf in Onslow Bay, North Carolina during Hurricane Isabel. Estuar. Coast. Shelf S ci., 63: 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wu S Y, Wu Y S, Zhang S K. 2013. The satellite retrieval of marine yellow substance in Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 44 (5): 1223–1228. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  54. Ye H J, Sui Y, Tang D L et al. 2013. A subsurface chlorophyll a bloom induced by typhoon in the South China Sea. J. Mar. Syst., 128: 138–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yun H, He L Y, Huang X F et al. 2013. Characterising seasonal variation and spatial distribution of PM2.5 species in Shenzhen. Environmental Science, 34 (4): 1245–1251. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  56. Zhao H, Tang D L, Wang D X. 2009. Phytoplankton blooms near the Pearl River estuary induced by Typhoon Nuri. J. Geophys. Res., 114 (C12): C12027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhao H, Tang D L, Wang Y Q. 2008. Comparison of phytoplankton blooms triggered by two typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds in the South China Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 365: 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zheng G M, Tang D L. 2007. Offshore and nearshore chlorophyll increases induced by typhoon winds and subsequent terrestrial rainwater runoff. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 333: 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhu L B, Zhao B R. 1991. Distributions and variations of the transparency in the Bohai Sea, Yellow sea, and East China Sea. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology, (3): 1–11. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dongyang Fu (付东洋)
    • 1
  • Hong Luan (栾虹)
    • 1
  • Delu Pan (潘德炉)
    • 2
  • Ying Zhang (张莹)
    • 1
  • Li’an Wang (王立安)
    • 1
  • Dazhao Liu (刘大召)
    • 1
  • Youzhuan Ding (丁又专)
    • 1
  • Xue Li (李薛)
    • 1
  1. 1.Lab of Remote Sensing & Information TechnologyGuangdong Ocean UniversityZhanjiangChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics (Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration)HangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations