Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 18–25 | Cite as

Seasonal-to-interannual variability of chlorophyll in central western South China Sea extracted from SeaWiFS

  • Fuwen Qiu (丘福文)
  • Wendong Fang (方文东)
  • Guohong Fang (方国洪)
Physics

Abstract

Using 10-year (January 1998–October 2007) dataset of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), we extracted the dominant spatial patterns and temporal variations of the chlorophyll distribution in the central western South China Sea (SCS) through Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The results show that the first EOF mode is characterized by a high chlorophyll concentration zone along the Vietnam coast. We found two peaks in summer (July–August) and in winter (December), respectively, in normal years. The second EOF mode is characterized by a jet-shaped tongue of high chlorophyll concentration extending seaward to the northeast in summer (July–August). To investigate the interannual variability of the chlorophyll concentration, we extracted the first non-seasonal (annual cycle removed) EOF mode, which shows high spatial variability off the southeast Vietnam coast. Both spatial pattern and time coefficients correspond well with those of sea surface temperature mode, and are closely correlated to ENSO events, with a lag of 7 months.

Keyword

chlorophyll variability ENSO South China Sea (SCS) 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Campbell J. 1995. The lognormal distribution as a model for bio-optical variability in the sea. J. Geophys. Res., 100(C7): 13 237–13 254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chu P C, Lu S, Chen Y. 1997. Temporal and spatial variability of the South China Sea surface temperature anomaly. J. Geophys. Res., 102: 20 6955–20 937.Google Scholar
  3. Fang G, Fang W, Fang Y, Wang K. 1998. A survey of studies on the South China Sea upper ocean circulation. Acta Oceanogr. Taiwan, 37(1): 1–16.Google Scholar
  4. Fang W, Fang G, Shi P, Huang Q, Xie Q. 2002. Seasonal structures of upper layer circulation in the South China Sea from in situ observations. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C11): 3 202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fang W, Guo Z, Huang Y. 1998. Observational study of the circulation in the southern South China Sea. Chin. Sci. Bull., 43: 898–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fang W, Guo J, Shi P, Mao Q. 2006. Low frequency variability of South China Sea surface circulation from 11 years of satellite altimeter data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33: L22 612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ho C R, Kuo N J, Zheng Q, Soong Y S. 2000a. Dynamically active areas in the South China Sea detected from TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter data. Remote Sens. Environ., 71: 320–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ho C R, Zheng Q, Soong Y S, Kuo N J, Hu J J. 2000b. Seasonal variability of sea surface height in the South China Sea observed with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data. J. Geophys. Res., 105(C6): 13 981–13 990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Isoguchi O, Kawamura H. 2006. MJO-related summer cooling and phytoplankton blooms in the South China Sea in recent years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33: L16 615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kuo N J, Zheng Q, Ho C R. 2000. Satellite observation of upwelling along the western coast of the South China Sea. Remote Sens, Environ., 74: 463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kuo N J, Zheng Q, Ho C R. 2004. Response of Vietnam coastal upwelling to the 1997-1998 ENSO event observed by multisensory data. Remote Sens, Environ., 89: 106–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu K K, Chao S Y, Shaw P T, Gong G C, Chen C C, Tang T Y. 2002. Monsoon-forced chlorophyll distribution and primary production in the South China Sea: observations and a numerical study. Part I, Deep Sea Res., 49: 1 387–1 412.Google Scholar
  13. McPhaden, M J. 2008. Evolution of the 2006–07 El Niño: the role of intraseasonal to interannual time scale dynamics, Adv. Geosci., 14: 219–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Relly J E, Maritorena S, Siegel D A et al. 2000. Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4. In: Hooker S B, Firestone E R eds, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, p. 9–23.Google Scholar
  15. Tang D L, Kawamura H, Dien T V, Lee M A. 2004. Offshore phytoplankton biomass increase and its oceanographic causes in the South China Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 268: 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wang C, Wang W, Wang D, Wang Q. 2006. Interannual variability of the South China Sea associated with El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 111: C03 023.Google Scholar
  17. Wang Y, Fang G, Wei Z, Qiao F, Chen H. 2006. Interannual variation of the South China Sea circulation and its relation to El Nino, as seen from a variable grid global ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 111: C11S14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wentz F J, Gentemann C, Smith D, Chelton D. 2000. Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds. Science, 288: 847–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wu C R, Shaw P T, Chao S Y. 1999. Assimilating altimeter data into a South China Sea model. J. Geophys. Res., 104: 29 987–30 005.Google Scholar
  20. Wu C R, Chang J. 2005. Interannual variability of the South China Sea in a data assimilation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32: L17 611.Google Scholar
  21. Wyrtki K. 1961. Physical oceanography of the Southeast Asian waters: Scientific results of marine investigations of the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, NAGA Rep. 2. Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr., La Jolla, Calif. 195p.Google Scholar
  22. Xie S P, Xie Q, Wang D, Liu W T. 2003. Summer upwelling in the South China Sea and its role in regional climate variations. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8): 3 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xie S P, Chang C H, Xie Q, Wang D. 2007. Intraseasonal variability in the summer South China Sea: Wind jet, cold filament, and recirculation. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C10008, doi:10.1029/2007JC004238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xu X, Zhang Q, Chen H. 1982. The general descriptions of the horizontal circulation in the South China Sea, in proceedings of the 1980 symposium of the Chinese Society of Marine Hydrology and Meteorology, Sci. Press, Beijing. p. 119–127.Google Scholar
  25. Zhao H, Tang D L. 2007. Effect of 1998 El Niño on the distribution of phytoplankton in the South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 112: C02 017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fuwen Qiu (丘福文)
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wendong Fang (方文东)
    • 1
  • Guohong Fang (方国洪)
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.First Institute of OceanographyState Oceanic AdministrationQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations