Bose–Einstein condensates in 1D- and 2D optical lattices
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Bose–Einstein condensates of rubidium atoms are transferred into one- and two-dimensional optical lattice potentials. The phase coherence of the condensate wavefunction in the lattice potential is studied by suddenly releasing the atoms from the trapping potential and observing the multiple matter-wave interference pattern of several thousand expanding quantum gases. We show how arbitrary phase gradients can be mapped onto the periodic wavefunction through the application of a potential gradient. Furthermore, the experimentally measured strength of the momentum components is compared to a theoretical model of the condensate wavefunction in the lattice.
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