Cavitation bubble behavior and bubble–shock wave interaction near a gelatin surface as a study of in vivo bubble dynamics
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The collapse of a single cavitation bubble near a gelatin surface, and the interaction of an air bubble attached to a gelatin surface with a shock wave, were investigated. These events permitted the study of the behavior of in vivo cavitation bubbles and the subsequent tissue damage mechanism during intraocular surgery, intracorporeal and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Results were obtained with high-speed framing photography. The cavitation bubbles near the gelatin surface did not produce significant liquid jets directed at the surface, and tended to migrate away from it. The period of the motion of a cavitation bubble near the gelatin surface was longer than that of twice the Rayleigh’s collapse time for a wide range of relative distance, L/Rmax, excepting for very small L/Rmax values (L was the stand-off distance between the gelatin surface and the laser focus position, and Rmax was the maximum bubble radius). The interaction of an air bubble with a shock wave yielded a liquid jet inside the bubble, penetrating into the gelatin surface. The liquid jet had the potential to damage the gelatin. The results predicted that cavitation-bubble-induced tissue damage was closely related to the oscillatory bubble motion, the subsequent mechanical tissue displacement, and the liquid jet penetration generated by the interaction of the remaining gas bubbles with subsequent shock waves. The characteristic bubble motion and liquid jet formation depended on the tissue’s mechanical properties, resulting in different damage mechanisms from those observed on hard materials.
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