Applied Physics B

, 125:218 | Cite as

Solving an old puzzle: fine structure of diffraction spots from an azo-polymer surface relief grating

  • Joachim Jelken
  • Carsten HenkelEmail author
  • Svetlana Santer


We report on the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the diffraction of a probe beam during inscription of a surface relief grating with an interference pattern into a photo-responsive polymer film. For this, we developed a set-up allowing for the simultaneous recording of the diffraction efficiency (DE), the fine structure of the diffraction spot and the topographical changes, in situ and in real time while the film is irradiated. The time dependence of the DE, as the surface relief deepens, follows a Bessel function exhibiting maxima and minima. The size of the probe beam relative to the inscribed grating (i.e., to the size of the writing beams) matters and has to be considered for the interpretation of the DE signal. It is also at the origin of a fine structure within the diffraction spot where ring-shaped features appear once an irradiation time corresponding to the first maximum of the DE has been exceeded.

Graphic abstract



This research is supported by the Helmholtz Graduate School on Macromolecular Bioscience (Teltow, Germany). We thank Burkhard Stiller and Andreas Pucher for the fruitful discussions.

Supplementary material

340_2019_7331_MOESM1_ESM.docx (409 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 410 kb)
340_2019_7331_MOESM2_ESM.mp4 (6.8 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (MP4 6972 kb)


  1. 1.
    N.S. Yadavalli, F. Linde, A. Kopyshev, S. Santer, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 5, 7743 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Di Florio, E. Bründermann, N.S. Yadavalli, S. Santer, M. Havenith, Soft Mater. 12, 98 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Loebner, N. Lomadze, A. Kopyshev, M. Koch, O. Guskova, M.G. Saphiannikova, S.A. Santer, J. Phys. Chem. B 122, 2001 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Ambrosio, L. Marrucci, F. Borbone, A. Roviello, P. Maddalena, Nat. Commun. 3, 989 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, Opt. Express 14, 2203 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.P. Vernon, S.V. Serak, R.S. Hakobyan, A.K. Aleksanyan, V.P. Tondiglia, T.J. White, T.J. Bunning, N.V. Tabiryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201101 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.Y. Kim, S.K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Emoto, E. Uchida, T. Fukuda, Polymers 4, 150 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Vapaavuori, A. Goulet-Hanssens, I.T.S. Heikkinen, C.J. Barrett, A. Priimagi, Chem. Mater. 26, 5089 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.E. Koskela, J. Vapaavuori, R.H.A. Ras, A. Priimagi, ACS Macro Lett. 3, 1196 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Saccone, V. Dichiarante, A. Forni, A. Goulet-Hanssens, G. Cavallo, J. Vapaavuori, G. Terraneo, C.J. Barrett, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, A. Priimagi, J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 759 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N.S. Yadavalli, M. Saphiannikova, S. Santer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 051601 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N.S. Yadavalli, M. Saphiannikova, N. Lomadze, L.M. Goldenberg, S. Santer, Appl. Phys. A 113, 263 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N.S. Yadavalli, S. Santer, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 224304 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Saphiannikova, V. Toshchevikov, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23, 146 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Toshchevikov, J. Ilnytskyi, M. Saphiannikova, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 1094 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Dumont, A. El Osman, Chem. Phys. 245, 437 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Yadav, J. Domurath, K. Kim, S. Lee, M. Saphiannikova, J. Phys. Chem. B 123, 3337 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Di Florio, E. Brundermann, N.S. Yadavalli, S.A. Santer, M. Havenith, Nano Lett. 14, 5754 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N.S. Yadavalli, D. Korolkov, J. Moulin, M. Krutyeva, S. Santer, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 6, 11333 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    V. Toshchevikov, M. Saphiannikova, G. Heinrich, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 913 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    V. Toshchevikov, M. Saphiannikova, J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 12297 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Saphiannikova, D. Neher, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 19428 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. Toshchevikov, M. Saphiannikova, G. Heinrich, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5032 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H.J. Eichler, P. Günther, D.W. Pohl, Laser-induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer, Berlin, 1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    X.L. Jiang, L. Li, D.Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, S.K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2618 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Mysliwiec, A. Miniewicz, S. Nespurek, M. Studenovsky, Z. Sedlakova, Opt. Mater. 29, 1756 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Taunaumang, M. Solyga, M.O. Tija, A. Miniewicz, Thin Solid Films 461, 316 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    O. Kulikovska, L.M. Goldenberg, J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, L.M. Goldenberg, J. Stumpe, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 1(8), 1739 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L.M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, O. Kulikovska, J. Stumpe, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 8068 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    F.L. Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 6690 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    F.L. Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, C. Sourisseau, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 2654 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    F.L. Labarthet, T. Buffeteau, C. Sourisseau, Appl. Phys. B 74, 129 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    F.L. Labarthet, P. Rochon, A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1377 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Jelken, S. Santer, RSC Adv. 9, 20295 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Frey, J.M. Jonathan, A. Villing, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 165, 153 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of optics, 6th edn. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations