Advertisement

Applied Physics B

, 124:203 | Cite as

Intermodal cross-phase modulation enabling all-optical temporal and spatial shaping in few-mode fibers

  • Martin Schnack
  • Niklas M. Lüpken
  • Carsten Fallnich
Article

Abstract

We present a concept using intermodal cross-phase modulation to enable all-optical temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal pulse shaping inside a few-mode fiber. The pulse shaping is achieved by all-optically tuning a fiber-based, inline Mach–Zehnder interferometer, which uses two transverse modes of the fiber as interferometer pathways and long-period gratings for mode coupling. We explore the shaping capabilities of such a two-mode Mach–Zehnder interferometer and compare simulations based on the multimode generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation to a simplified model based on the analytical description of intermodal cross-phase modulation. Such an approximated description reduces computation times from hours to less than a minute and proves to be valid for most scenarios, enabling fast and easy prediction of the shaping functionality in such devices.

Supplementary material

340_2018_7069_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (48 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 52 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    D.J. Richardson, J.M. Fini, L.E. Nelson, Nat. Photonics 7, 354 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Ramachandran, J. Light. Technol. 23, 3426 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. Redding, H. Cao, Opt. Lett. 37, 3384 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.E. Morales-Delgado, S. Farahi, I.N. Papadopoulos, D. Psaltis, C. Moser, Opt. Express 23, 9109 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L.G. Wright, D.N. Christodoulides, F.W. Wise, Science 358, 94 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    O. Tzang, A.M. Caravaca-Aguirre, K. Wagner, R. Piestun, Nat. Photonics 12, 368 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H.G. Park, C.C. Pohalski, B.Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 13, 776 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, S. Shaklan, F. Reynaud, Opt. Commun. 82, 245 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Schnack, T. Hellwig, C. Fallnich, Opt. Lett. 41, 5588 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.P. Agrawal, P.L. Baldeck, R.R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. A 40, 5063 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Smith, P.G.J. Wigley, N.J. Doran, Opt. Lett. 15, 1294 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Nuño, M. Gilles, M. Guasoni, B. Kibler, C. Finot, J. Fatome, Opt. Lett. 41, 1110 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Ricciardi, A. Crescitelli, P. Vaiano, G. Quero, M. Consales, M. Pisco, E. Esposito, A. Cusano, Analyst 140, 8068 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.M. Weiner, Opt. Commun. 284, 3669 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Tournois, Opt. Commun. 140, 245 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Z. Zhang, Z. You, D. Chu, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e213 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Haner, W.S. Warren, Appl. Opt. 26, 3687 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Wang, C.W. Freudiger, J.H. Lee, B.G. Saar, X.S. Xie, C. Xu, Opt. Express 18, 24019 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Erdogan, J. Light. Technol. 15, 1277 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Finot, S. Boscolo (eds.), Shaping Light in Nonlinear Optical Fibers (Wiley, Chichester, 2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y.P. Li, C.C. Lee, Opt. Commun. 265, 406 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    B.H. Lee, Y.H. Kim, K.S. Park, J.B. Eom, M.J. Kim, B.S. Rho, H.Y. Choi, Sensors 12, 2467 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Wei, X. Lan, H. Xiao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 669 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O. Duhem, J. Henninot, M. Douay, Opt. Commun. 180, 255 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Fu, X. Shu, A. Zhang, W. Liu, L. Zhang, S. He, I. Bennion, IEEE Sens. J. 11, 2878 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D.J. Webb, I. Bennion, R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. Chen, X. Shu, K. Sugden, Opt. Lett. 42, 4059 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W.W. Li, W.P. Chen, D.N. Wang, Z.K. Wang, B. Xu, Opt. Lett. 42, 4438 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    N.M. Lüpken, T. Hellwig, M. Schnack, J.P. Epping, K.-J. Boller, C. Fallnich, Opt. Lett. 43, 1631 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Schnack, F. Seck, N.M. Lüpken, C. Fallnich, Appl. Phys. B (2018) (submitted to)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Walbaum, M. Löser, P. Gross, C. Fallnich, Appl. Phys. B 102, 743 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    F. Poletti, P. Horak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1645 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd edn. (Elsevier, Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2008)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Nayar, H. Vanherzeele, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 603 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T. Hellwig, M. Schnack, T. Walbaum, S. Dobner, C. Fallnich, Opt. Express 22, 24951 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Schnack, T. Hellwig, M. Brinkmann, C. Fallnich, Opt. Lett. 40, 4675 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Dupiol, A. Bendahmane, K. Krupa, A. Tonello, M. Fabert, B. Kibler, T. Sylvestre, A. Barthelemy, V. Couderc, S. Wabnitz, G. Millot, Opt. Lett. 42, 1293 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    F. Poletti, P. Horak, Opt. Express 17, 6134 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Poole, J. Wiesenfeld, D. DiGiovanni, A. Vengsarkar, J. Light. Technol. 12, 1746 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R.S. Windeler, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 77 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J.M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Carpenter, B.J. Eggleton, J. Schröder, Nat. Photonics 9, 751 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.N. Blake, B.Y. Kim, H.J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 177 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    S.M. Israelsen, K. Rottwitt, Opt. Express 24, 23969 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Schnack
    • 1
  • Niklas M. Lüpken
    • 1
  • Carsten Fallnich
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Applied PhysicsWestfälische Wilhelms-UniversitätMünsterGermany

Personalised recommendations