An innovative optical method is introduced for the beam quality measurement of any arbitrary transverse mode based on the reconstruction of the mode from a few-frame image of the beam cross-section. This is performed by the decomposition of a mode to its basic Hermite–Gaussian modal coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is examined through M 2-factor measurement of the beam of a Nd:YAG laser which was forced to oscillate in a certain mode using a crossed rectangular intracavity aperture. Obtained results have shown that this method can be alternatively replaced for the hologram- and ISO-based techniques recently exploiting for beam quality measurement regardless of the mode type and the position of utilized CCD camera along the beam direction.
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Hashemi, S.S., Ghavami Sabouri, S. & Khorsandi, A. In situ measurement of laser beam quality. Appl. Phys. B 123, 233 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-017-6811-y