Advertisement

Applied Physics B

, 123:233 | Cite as

In situ measurement of laser beam quality

  • Somayeh Sadat Hashemi
  • Saeed Ghavami Sabouri
  • Alireza Khorsandi
Article

Abstract

An innovative optical method is introduced for the beam quality measurement of any arbitrary transverse mode based on the reconstruction of the mode from a few-frame image of the beam cross-section. This is performed by the decomposition of a mode to its basic Hermite–Gaussian modal coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is examined through M 2-factor measurement of the beam of a Nd:YAG laser which was forced to oscillate in a certain mode using a crossed rectangular intracavity aperture. Obtained results have shown that this method can be alternatively replaced for the hologram- and ISO-based techniques recently exploiting for beam quality measurement regardless of the mode type and the position of utilized CCD camera along the beam direction.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 47917 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    J.D. Horsnell, C. Kendall, N. Stone, Towards the intra-operative use of Raman spectroscopy in breast cancer—overcoming the effects of theatre lighting. Lasers Med. Sci. 31, 1143–1149 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. W. Boyd, Preface to the second edition A2. in: Nonlinear optics (third edition). Academic, Burlington, pp. xv–xvi (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Demtröder, Laser spectroscopy: basic concepts and instrumentation (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. O. f. Standardization, ISO 11146-1/2/3 Test methods for laser beam widths, divergence angles and beam propagation ratios—Part 1: Stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams/Part 2: General astigmatic beams/Part 3: Intrinsic and geometrical laser beam classification, propagation and details of test methods. ISO, Geneva (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Kaim, J. Lumeau, V. Smirnov, B. Zeldovich, L. Glebov, Metric for the measurement of the quality of complex beams: a theoretical study. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 538–548 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Kaim, S. Mokhov, D. Drachenberg, L. Glebov, B. Zeldovich, Characterization of Beam Quality by the Power-in-the-Bucket, in Frontiers in Optics 2011/Laser Science XXVII, FWD7 (2011). doi: 10.1364/FIO.2011.FWD7
  7. 7.
    S. Ruschin, E. Yaakobi, E. Shekel, Gaussian content as a laser beam quality parameter. Appl. Opt. 50, 4376–4381 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O.A. Schmidt, C. Schulze, D. Flamm, R. Brüning, T. Kaiser, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, Real-time determination of laser beam quality by modal decomposition. Opt. Express 19, 6741–6748 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Duparré, B. Lüdge, S. Schröter, On-line characterization of Nd:YAG laser beams by means of modal decomposition using diffractive optical correlation filters. Proceedings of the SPIE 5962, Optical Design and Engineering II, 59622G (2005). doi: 10.1117/12.625222
  10. 10.
    C. Schulze, D. Flamm, M. Duparré, A. Forbes, Beam-quality measurements using a spatial light modulator. Opt. Lett. 37, 4687–4689 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Forbes, A. Dudley, M. McLaren, Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators. Adv. Opt. Photon. 8, 200–227 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. Lakshminarayanan, M. L. Calvo, T. Alieva, Mathematical Optics: Classical, Quantum, and Computational Methods (Taylor & Francis, United States of America, 2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.H.G.R. Kan, G.T. Timmer, Stochastic global optimization methods part II: Multi level methods. Math. Progr. 39, 57–78 (1987)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIslamic Republic of Iran

Personalised recommendations