Applied Physics B

, 122:188 | Cite as

High-sensitivity in situ QCLAS-based ammonia concentration sensor for high-temperature applications

  • W. Y. Peng
  • R. Sur
  • C. L. Strand
  • R. M. Spearrin
  • J. B. Jeffries
  • R. K. Hanson
Article

Abstract

A novel quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption sensor is presented for high-sensitivity in situ measurements of ammonia (\(\hbox {NH}_3\)) in high-temperature environments, using scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with first-harmonic-normalized second-harmonic detection (scanned WMS-2f/1f) to neutralize the effect of non-absorption losses in the harsh environment. The sensor utilized the sQ(9,9) transition of the fundamental symmetric stretch band of \(\hbox {NH}_3\) at \(10.39\,{\upmu }\hbox {m}\) and was sinusoidally modulated at 10 kHz and scanned across the peak of the absorption feature at 50 Hz, leading to a detection bandwidth of 100 Hz. A novel technique was used to select an optimal WMS modulation depth parameter that reduced the sensor’s sensitivity to spectral interference from \(\hbox {H}_2\hbox {O}\) and \(\hbox {CO}_2\) without significantly sacrificing signal-to-noise ratio. The sensor performance was validated by measuring known concentrations of \(\hbox {NH}_3\) in a flowing gas cell. The sensor was then demonstrated in a laboratory-scale methane-air burner seeded with \(\hbox {NH}_3\), achieving a demonstrated detection limit of 2.8 ± 0.26 ppm \(\hbox {NH}_3\) by mole at a path length of 179 cm, equivalence ratio of 0.6, pressure of 1 atm, and temperatures of up to 600 K.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, 452 Escondido Mall, Bldg. 520, Thermosciences DivisionStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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