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Applied Physics B

, Volume 121, Issue 1, pp 107–116 | Cite as

Optical investigation of nanophotonic lithium niobate-based optical waveguide

  • Makram A. Fakhri
  • Y. Al-DouriEmail author
  • U. Hashim
  • Evan T. Salim
  • Deo Prakash
  • K. D. Verma
Article

Abstract

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanophotonics are prepared on quartz substrate by sol–gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentrations and annealed at 500 °C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet–visible. The measured results show an importance of increasing molarity that indicates the structure starts to crystallize to become more regular. The estimated lattice constants, energy gaps and refractive index give good accordance with experimental results. Also, the calculated refractive index and optical dielectric constant are in agreement with experimental data.

Keywords

LiNbO3 Nb2O5 Optical Waveguide Lithium Niobate Optical Dielectric Constant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Y.A. would like to thank University Malaysia Perlis for Grant Nos. 9007-00111 and 9007-00185 and TWAS-Italy for the full support of his visit to JUST-Jordan under a TWAS-UNESCO Associateship. K.D.V. would like to acknowledge U.G.C., New Delhi, India, for providing financial assistance in the form of Major Research Project [Code: 42-856/2013(SR)].

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Makram A. Fakhri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Y. Al-Douri
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • U. Hashim
    • 1
  • Evan T. Salim
    • 5
  • Deo Prakash
    • 4
  • K. D. Verma
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Nano Electronic EngineeringUniversity Malaysia PerlisKangarMalaysia
  2. 2.Laser and Optoelectronic DepartmentUniversity of TechnologyBaghdadIraq
  3. 3.Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Sidi-Bel-AbbesSidi-Bel-AbbèsAlgeria
  4. 4.School of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringSMVD UniversityKakryal, KatraIndia
  5. 5.Laser Science BranchUniversity of TechnologyBaghdadIraq
  6. 6.Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of PhysicsS. V. CollegeAligarhIndia

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