Applied Physics B

, Volume 120, Issue 2, pp 185–199 | Cite as

Infrared planar laser-induced fluorescence with a CW quantum-cascade laser for spatially resolved CO2 and gas properties

  • Christopher S. Goldenstein
  • Victor A. Miller
  • Ronald K. Hanson
Rapid Communication


The design and demonstration of a new infrared laser-induced fluorescence (IR-LIF) technique that enables spatially resolved measurements of CO2, temperature, and pressure, with potential for velocity, are presented. A continuous-wave, wavelength-tunable, quantum-cascade laser (QCL) near \(4.3\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) with up to 120 mW was used to directly excite the asymmetric-stretch fundamental-vibration band of CO2 for approximately 200 to \(10^5\) times more absorbance compared with previous IR-LIF techniques. This enabled LIF detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio of 1) of 20 and 70 ppm of CO2 in Ar and \(\hbox {N}_2\), respectively, at 1 bar and 296 K in static-cell experiments. Simplified and detailed kinetic models for simulating the LIF signal as a function of gas properties are presented and enable quantitative, calibration-free, IR-LIF measurements of CO2 mole fraction within 1–8 % of known values at 0.5–1 bar. By scanning the laser across two absorption transitions and performing a multi-line Voigt fit to the LIF signal, measurements of temperature, pressure, and \(\chi _{\hbox {CO}_2}\) within 2 % of known values were obtained. LIF measurements of gas pressure at a repetition rate up to 200 Hz (in argon) are also presented. Planar-LIF (PLIF) was used to image steady and unsteady CO2–Ar jets at 330 frames per second with a spatial signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 25, corresponding to a detection limit (SNR = 1) of 200 ppm with a projected pixel size of \(40\,\upmu \hbox {m}\). The gas pressure was measured within \(3 \pm 2\) % of the known value (1 bar) at 5 Hz by scanning the QCL across the P(42) absorption transition and least-squares fitting a Voigt profile to the PLIF signal. Spatially resolved measurements of absolute CO2 mole fraction in a laminar jet are also presented.


Laser-induced fluorescence Quantum-cascade laser Infrared photophysics CO2 



This work was supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research under the Basic Research Initiative Program Grant Number FA9550-12-1-0472 with Dr. Chiping Li as Program Manager. The authors would like to thank Vince Morton and Todd Rumbaugh of Hadland Imaging and Frédérick Marcotte and Alexandrine Huot of Telops for demonstrating and operating the infrared camera.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher S. Goldenstein
    • 1
  • Victor A. Miller
    • 1
  • Ronald K. Hanson
    • 1
  1. 1.High Temperature Gasdynamics LaboratoryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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