Applied Physics B

, Volume 117, Issue 1, pp 411–421 | Cite as

Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier

  • Kai Sun
  • Ritobrata Sur
  • Jay B. Jeffries
  • Ronald K. Hanson
  • Tommy Clark
  • Justin Anthony
  • Scott Machovec
  • John Northington
Article

Abstract

A real-time, in situ water vapor (H2O) sensor using a tunable diode laser near 1,352 nm was developed to continuously monitor water vapor in the synthesis gas of an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier. Wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was used to determine the absorption magnitude. The 1f-normalized, WMS-2f signal (WMS-2f/1f) was insensitive to non-absorption transmission losses including beam steering and light scattering by the particulate in the synthesis gas. A fitting strategy was used to simultaneously determine the water vapor mole fraction and the collisional-broadening width of the transition from the scanned 1f-normalized WMS-2f waveform at pressures up to 15 atm, which can be used for large absorbance values. This strategy is analogous to the fitting strategy for wavelength-scanned direct absorption measurements. In a test campaign at the US National Carbon Capture Center, the sensor demonstrated a water vapor detection limit of ~800 ppm (25 Hz bandwidth) at conditions with more than 99.99 % non-absorption transmission losses. Successful unattended monitoring was demonstrated over a 435 h period. Strong correlations between the sensor measurements and transient gasifier operation conditions were observed, demonstrating the capability of laser absorption to monitor the gasification process.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Sun
    • 1
  • Ritobrata Sur
    • 1
  • Jay B. Jeffries
    • 1
  • Ronald K. Hanson
    • 1
  • Tommy Clark
    • 2
  • Justin Anthony
    • 2
  • Scott Machovec
    • 2
  • John Northington
    • 2
  1. 1.High Temperature Gasdynamics LaboratoryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.National Carbon Capture CenterSouthern Company ServicesWilsonvilleUSA

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