A calibration-free ammonia breath sensor using a quantum cascade laser with WMS 2f/1f
- 704 Downloads
The amount of ammonia in exhaled breath has been linked to a variety of adverse medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The development of accurate, reliable breath sensors has the potential to improve medical care. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by the first harmonic (WMS 2f/1f) is a sensitive technique used in the development of calibration-free sensors. An ammonia gas sensor is designed and developed that uses a quantum cascade laser operating near 1,103.44 cm−1 and a multi-pass cell with an effective path length of 76.45 m. The sensor has a 7 ppbv detection limit and 5 % total uncertainty for breath measurements. The sensor was successfully used to detect ammonia in exhaled breath and compare healthy patients to patients diagnosed with CKD.
KeywordsChronic Kidney Disease Mole Fraction Ammonia Level Quantum Cascade Laser Simulated Peak
We would like to acknowledge the funding provided by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). We would also like to thank Dr. Mohammed Ayran, Dr. Mahmoud Saleh, and the staff of the Dialysis Center at the International Medical Center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia for their medical consultation and assistance in collecting breath samples.
- 1.L. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. Patel, Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 98, 4617 (2001)Google Scholar
- 5.Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, T. Risby, J. Bruno, Quantum cascade laser-based sensor platform for ammonia detection in exhaled human breath, in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, St. Petersburg, Florida, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2008)Google Scholar
- 6.J. Manne, W. Jäger, J. Tulip, Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques. Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 337–344 (2009)Google Scholar
- 7.R. Lewicki, A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, T. Risby, S. Solga, T. Schwartz, F. Tittel, Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor, in Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7945 (2011), pp. 79450K-1–79450K-7Google Scholar
- 9.K. Sun, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, M. A. Zondlo, Inline multi-harmonic calibration method for open-path atmospheric ammonia measurements. Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 213–222 (2012)Google Scholar