Multi-species laser absorption sensors for in situ monitoring of syngas composition
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Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy sensors for detection of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2O at elevated pressures in mixtures of synthesis gas (syngas: products of coal and/or biomass gasification) were developed and tested. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with 1f-normalized 2f detection was employed. Fiber-coupled DFB diode lasers operating at 2325, 2017, 2290 and 1352 nm were used for simultaneously measuring CO, CO2, CH4 and H2O, respectively. Criteria for the selection of transitions were developed, and transitions were selected to optimize the signal and minimize interference from other species. For quantitative WMS measurements, the collision-broadening coefficients of the selected transitions were determined for collisions with possible syngas components, namely CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, N2 and H2. Sample measurements were performed for each species in gas cells at a temperature of 25 °C up to pressures of 20 atm. To validate the sensor performance, the composition of synthetic syngas was determined by the absorption sensor and compared with the known values. A method of estimating the lower heating value and Wobbe index of the syngas mixture from these measurements was also demonstrated.
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