Applied Physics B

, Volume 111, Issue 4, pp 551–557 | Cite as

Additive colouring of CaF2:Yb crystals: determination of Yb2+ concentration in CaF2:Yb crystals and ceramics

  • A. S. Shcheulin
  • A. E. Angervaks
  • T. S. Semenova
  • L. F. Koryakina
  • M. A. Petrova
  • P. P. Fedorov
  • V. M. Reiterov
  • E. A. Garibin
  • A. I. Ryskin


When growing CaF2 crystal doped with rare-earth ions, most of these ions are present in a trivalent state. However, due to contact with graphite crucible, a small proportion of a number of ions (Eu, Sm, Yb and Tm) are reduced to a bivalent state. A similar situation takes place during fabrication of CaF2 ceramics doped with rare-earth metals. This fact is of particular importance for laser CaF2:Yb crystals (ceramics), a promising material for short-pulse, high-power, high-energy diode-pumped solid state lasers since the presence of bivalent Yb ions can be a source of thermal losses. To date, there has been no technique to determine Yb2+ concentration in as-grown crystals. The proposed technique is based on a total reduction of Yb3+ ions via the heating of as-grown CaF2 crystals with known concentration of Yb in the reducing atmosphere of metal vapour and determining the cross section of absorption bands of Yb2+ ions. The knowledge of these parameters allows estimation of the Yb2+ content in CaF2:Yb crystals or ceramics by analysing their absorption spectra. Examples of using this technique are given. The technology of CdF2 crystals reduction (an “additive colouring”) and features of colouring of crystals doped with rare-earth ions are considered.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Shcheulin
    • 1
  • A. E. Angervaks
    • 1
  • T. S. Semenova
    • 1
  • L. F. Koryakina
    • 1
  • M. A. Petrova
    • 1
  • P. P. Fedorov
    • 2
  • V. M. Reiterov
    • 3
  • E. A. Garibin
    • 3
  • A. I. Ryskin
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and OpticsSaint PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.A.M. Prokhorov General Physics InstituteMoscowRussia
  3. 3.INCROM Ltd.Saint PetersburgRussia

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