Applied Physics B

, Volume 111, Issue 3, pp 433–446 | Cite as

Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser

  • Shanmugam Aravazhi
  • Dimitri Geskus
  • Koop van Dalfsen
  • Sergio A. Vázquez-Córdova
  • Christos Grivas
  • Uwe Griebner
  • Sonia M. García-Blanco
  • Markus Pollnau
Article

Abstract

Single-crystalline KY1−x−y−zGdxLuyYbz(WO4)2 layers are grown onto undoped KY(WO4)2 substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy. The purpose of co-doping the KY(WO4)2 layer with suitable fractions of Gd3+ and Lu3+ is to achieve lattice-matched layers that allow us to engineer a high refractive-index contrast between waveguiding layer and substrate for obtaining tight optical mode confinement and simultaneously accommodate a large range of Yb3+ doping concentrations by replacing Lu3+ ions of similar ionic radius for a variety of optical amplifier or laser applications. Crack-free layers, up to a maximum lattice mismatch of ~0.08 %, are grown with systematic variations of Y3+, Gd3+, Lu3+, and Yb3+ concentrations, their refractive indices are measured at several wavelengths, and Sellmeier dispersion curves are derived. The influence of co-doping on the spectroscopy of Yb3+ is investigated. As evidenced by the experimental results, the lattice constants, refractive indices, and transition cross-sections of Yb3+ in these co-doped layers can be approximated with good accuracy by weighted averages of data from the pure compounds. The obtained information is exploited to fabricate a twofold refractive-index-engineered sample consisting of a highly Yb3+-doped tapered channel waveguide embedded in a passive planar waveguide, and a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser is demonstrated.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shanmugam Aravazhi
    • 1
  • Dimitri Geskus
    • 1
  • Koop van Dalfsen
    • 1
  • Sergio A. Vázquez-Córdova
    • 1
  • Christos Grivas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Uwe Griebner
    • 3
  • Sonia M. García-Blanco
    • 1
  • Markus Pollnau
    • 1
  1. 1.Integrated Optical MicroSystems Group, MESA+ Institute for NanotechnologyUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.On leave from: Optoelectronics Research CentreUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  3. 3.Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse SpectroscopyBerlinGermany

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