Applied Physics B

, Volume 106, Issue 2, pp 251–255 | Cite as

Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane

  • K. Krzempek
  • R. Lewicki
  • L. Nähle
  • M. Fischer
  • J. Koeth
  • S. Belahsene
  • Y. Rouillard
  • L. Worschech
  • F. K. Tittel
Rapid Communication

Abstract

The development of a continuous wave (CW), thermoelectrically cooled (TEC), distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode based spectroscopic trace-gas sensor for ultra-sensitive and selective ethane (C2H6) concentration measurements is reported. The sensor platform used tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) based on a 2f wavelength modulation (WM) detection technique. TDLAS was performed with a 100 m optical path length astigmatic Herriott cell. For an interference free C2H6 absorption line located at 2976.8 cm−1 a 1σ minimum detection limit of 240 pptv (part per trillion by volume) with a 1 second lock-in amplifier time constant was achieved. In addition, reliable and long-term sensor performance was obtained when operating the sensor in an absorption line locked mode.

References

  1. 1.
    G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, F.K. Tittel, C.J. Hill, R.Q. Yang, M.P. Fraser, Appl. Opt. 46, 8202 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.N. Fiddler, I. Begashaw, M.A. Mickens, M.S. Collingwood, Z. Assefa, S. Bililign, Sensors 9, 10447 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A.A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F.K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. Front. Artic. 487, 1 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, F.K. Tittel, J. Breath Res. 1, 014001 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Risby, F.K. Tittel, SPIE Opt. Eng. 49, 111123 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.H. Shorter, D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, M.S. Zahniser, D.K. Milton, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 76 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.H. Shorter, D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, M.S. Zahniser, D.K. Milton, J. Breath Res. 5, 037108 (2011) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. McCurdy, H.A. Sharafkaneh, H. Abdel-Monem, J. Rojo, F.K. Tittel, J. Breath Res. 5, 016003 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K.R. Parameswaran, D.I. Rosen, M.G. Allan, A.M. Ganz, T.H. Risby, Appl. Opt. 48, B73 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Halmer, S. Thellen, P. Hering, M. Muertz, Appl. Phys. B 85, 437 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Wysocki, A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 80, 617 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Lewander, Z.G. Guan, L. Persson, A. Olsson, S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 93, 619 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, F.K. Tittel, R.F. Curl, Appl. Phys. B 90, 165 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    I.J. Simpson, F.S. Rowland, S. Meinardi, D.R. Blake, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L22808 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Xiao, J.A. Logan, D.J. Jacob, R.C. Hudman, R. Yantosca, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D21306 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Hirst, G. Gibson, S. Gillespie, I. Archibald, O. Podlaha, K.D. Skeldon, S. Monk, M. Padget, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 112115 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. Hirst, G. Gibson, S. Gillespie, I. Archibald, O. Podlaha, K.D. Skeldon, S. Monk, M. Padget, Atmos. Environ. 41, 1128 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Paredi, S.A. Kharitonov, P.J. Barnes, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162, 1450 (2000) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    B.K. Puri, B.M. Ross, I.H. Treasaden, Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 32, 858 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K.D. Skeldon, L.C. McMillan, C.A. Wyse, S.D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, M.J. Padgett, Respir. Med. 100, 300 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Refat, T.J. Moore, M. Kazui, T.H. Risby, J.A. Perman, K.B. Schwarz, Pediatr. Res. 30, 396 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Richter, A. Fried, P. Weibring, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 343 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Razeghi, Y. Bai, S. Livkin, S.R. Darvish, Opt. Eng. 49, 111103 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, B. Golden, A. Myzaferi, S. Tsao, S. Livkin, M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131117 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Bauer, M. Dallner, M. Kamp, S. Hoefling, L. Worschech, A. Forchel, Opt. Eng. 49, 111117 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Trocoli, X. Wang, J. Fan, Opt. Eng. 49, 111106 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. Capasso, Opt. Eng. 49, 111102 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C.S. Kim, M. Kim, J.R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, Opt. Eng. 49, 111116 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A.G. Tsekoun, C.K.N. Patel, Opt. Eng. 49, 111105 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Bismuto, M. Beck, J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191104 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D.G. Revin, J.P. Commin, S.Y. Zhang, A.B. Krysa, K. Kennedey, J.W. Cockburn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1417 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M.P. Semtsiv, M. Wienold, S. Dressler, W.T. Masselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211124 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.A. Gupta, P.J. Barrios, G.C. Aers, P. Waldron, C. Storey, Electron. Lett. 45, 835 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Belahsene, L. Naehle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 1084 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Kluczynski, S. Lundqvist, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, Opt. Lett. 34, 767 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.V. Okishev, D. Westerfield, L. Shterengas, G. Belenky, Opt. Express 17, 760 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. Naehle, S. Belahsene, M. von Edlinger, M. Fischer, G. Boissier, P. Grech, G. Narcy, A. Vicet, Y. Rouillard, J. Koeth, L. Worschech, Electron. Lett. 47, 46 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. So, G. Wysocki, J.P. Frantz, F.K. Tittel, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1057 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Krzempek
    • 1
  • R. Lewicki
    • 2
  • L. Nähle
    • 3
  • M. Fischer
    • 3
  • J. Koeth
    • 3
  • S. Belahsene
    • 4
  • Y. Rouillard
    • 4
  • L. Worschech
    • 5
  • F. K. Tittel
    • 2
  1. 1.Laser & Fiber Electronics GroupWroclaw University of TechnologyWroclawPoland
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Nanoplus GmbH ObererGerbrunnGermany
  4. 4.Institut d’Electronique du Sud, UMR 5214 CNRSUniversité Montpellier 2MontpellierFrance
  5. 5.Technische PhysikUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations