Electrode-free optical sensor for high voltage using a domain-inverted LiNbO3 waveguide near cut-off
We present a novel all-optical electric field sensor based on a proton-exchange waveguide near cut-off, centered on a few microns wide domain-inverted region in a z-cut LiNbO3 substrate. The output intensity from the waveguide is modulated by an external electric field via the electro-optic effect. We also demonstrate the sensor’s performance by detecting DC fields up to 2.6 MV/m and high-frequency (1.1 GHz) fields ranging from 19 V/m to 23 kV/m. These features and the proposed design allow operating the sensor without the use of any metal antenna, thus making it suited for use in high electric field and harsh conditions—e.g. power stations and transmission lines—without any danger for the operator or risk of damage to the sensor head.
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