Investigations of soot formation in an optically accessible gasoline direct injection engine by means of laser-induced incandescence (LII)
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This study presents the results of laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements in an optically accessible gasoline direct injection engine. The focus was to evaluate LII as a particle measurement technique which is able to provide a deeper understanding of the underlying reaction and formation processes of soot in order to optimize the injection system to reduce exhaust gas emissions. A comparison of time-resolved LII, based on the model described by Michelsen, with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) was performed. In this context, the air–fuel ratio, the injection pressure and the injection timing have been varied while applying the measurement techniques in the exhaust system. In case of a variation of the air–fuel ratio, two-dimensional LII has been performed in the combustion chamber additionally. For each measurement, the Filter Smoke Number (FSN) was taken into account as well. Finally, a good agreement of the different techniques was achieved. Moreover, we found that by combining time-resolved LII and EEPS a differentiation of primary particles and agglomerates is possible. Consequently, a determination of the processes in the combustion chamber and agglomeration in the exhaust gas is feasible.
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