Investigations of soot formation in an optically accessible gasoline direct injection engine by means of laser-induced incandescence (LII)
- 287 Downloads
This study presents the results of laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements in an optically accessible gasoline direct injection engine. The focus was to evaluate LII as a particle measurement technique which is able to provide a deeper understanding of the underlying reaction and formation processes of soot in order to optimize the injection system to reduce exhaust gas emissions. A comparison of time-resolved LII, based on the model described by Michelsen, with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) was performed. In this context, the air–fuel ratio, the injection pressure and the injection timing have been varied while applying the measurement techniques in the exhaust system. In case of a variation of the air–fuel ratio, two-dimensional LII has been performed in the combustion chamber additionally. For each measurement, the Filter Smoke Number (FSN) was taken into account as well. Finally, a good agreement of the different techniques was achieved. Moreover, we found that by combining time-resolved LII and EEPS a differentiation of primary particles and agglomerates is possible. Consequently, a determination of the processes in the combustion chamber and agglomeration in the exhaust gas is feasible.
KeywordsCombustion Chamber Injection Pressure Engine Speed Cylinder Head Soot Formation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Official Journal of the European Union, Regulation (EC) No 715 (2007) Google Scholar
- 3.H. Kubach, K. Mayer, U. Spicher, Report, European research center for activities for air pollution control (2001), PEF398004 Google Scholar
- 4.J. Goldlücke, O. Seelig, W. Ipp, S. Schraml, A. Leipertz, Proc. COMODIA, Yokohama, Japan, p. 369 (2004) Google Scholar
- 5.J.E. Dec, SAE-Paper 920115, p. 3 (1992) Google Scholar
- 7.K. Kohse-Höinghaus, J.B. Jeffries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, New York, 2002) Google Scholar
- 12.H.A. Michelsen, F. Liu, B.F. Kock, H. Bladh, A. Boiarciuc, M. Charwath, T. Dreier, R. Hadef, M. Hofmann, J. Reimann, S. Will, P.E. Bengtsson, H. Bockhorn, F. Foucher, K.P. Geigle, C. Mounaim-Rousselle, C. Schulz, R. Stirn, B. Tribalet, R. Suntz, Appl. Phys. B 87, 503 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Model 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM Operation and Service Manual, P/N 1980494 Rev. B (2004) Google Scholar
- 17.Application Notes AVL SmokeMeter 415S. www.avl.com/smoke-meter (2005)
- 18.W.C. Hinds, Aerosol Technology (Wiley, New York, 1982) Google Scholar
- 19.B.F. Kock, P. Roth, Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting (2003) Google Scholar
- 20.A. Velji, K. Yeom, U. Wagner, U. Spicher, SAE Tech. Paper 2010-01-0352, p. 103 (2010) Google Scholar