Applied Physics B

, Volume 102, Issue 2, pp 391–405 | Cite as

A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance

  • D. McDermitt
  • G. Burba
  • L. Xu
  • T. Anderson
  • A. Komissarov
  • B. Riensche
  • J. Schedlbauer
  • G. Starr
  • D. Zona
  • W. Oechel
  • S. Oberbauer
  • S. Hastings
Article

Abstract

This paper describes a new low-power instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance method at sites without grid power. Design and field performance of the LI-7700 Methane Analyzer (LI-COR Biosciences) are examined in this study. The instrument uses 8 W of power in steady-state operation and employs a tunable diode laser in an open Herriott cell configuration with 0.47 m base path and 30 m optical path length. Methane number density is measured using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with 2f detection. Typical signal noise is <5 ppb rms at 10 Hz. Corrections for variations in temperature, pressure and water vapor are described. Data losses due to mirror contamination and condensation are minimized by a radiation shield and automatic mirror cleaning system and are shown to be small. Measured spectra and co-spectra are shown to follow the Kaimal model at deployment sites meeting classical criteria, and to follow sensible heat flux co-spectra from the sonic anemometer in most other cases, including difficult ones. Measured fluxes are similar in magnitude to those expected from the literature, and zero flux was measured during both summer and winter at a site known to have fluxes at or very near zero.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis et al., In: Contribution of Working Group I to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Mosier, W. Parton, D. Valentine, D. Ojima, D. Schimel, J. Delgado, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 387 (1996) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    X. Yan, Z. Cai, T. Ohara, H. Akimoto, J. Geophys. Res. 108 (2003). doi:10.1029/2002JD003182
  4. 4.
    J. Von Fisher, L. Hedin, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 21 (2007). doi:10.1029/2006GB002687
  5. 5.
    G. Edwards, H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. Thurtell, G. Kidd, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1511 (1994) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. Eugster, W. Plüss, Agric. For. Meteorol. 150, 841 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Kim, S. Verma, D. Billesbach, R. Clement, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,029 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. Shurpali, S. Verma, Biogeochemistry 40, 1 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Laubach, F. Kelliher, Agric. For. Meteorol. 125, 279 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Kroon, A. Hensen, H. Jonker, M. Zahniser, W. van’t Veen, A. Vermeulen, Biogeosciences 4, 715 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Hendriks, A. Dolman, M. van de Molen, J. Huissteden, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 431 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Werle, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Muecke, F. D’Amato, T. Lancia, A. Popov, Spectrochim. Acta 58, 2361 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.S. Baer, J.B. Paul, M. Gupta, A. O’Keefe, Appl. Phys. B 75, 261 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E.R. Crosson, Appl. Phys. B 92, 403 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    D.R. Herriott, H.J. Schulte, Appl. Opt. 4, 883 (1965) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Cardona, in Solid State Physics, Suppl. 11 (Academic Press, New York, 1969) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.A. Silver, Appl. Opt. 31, 707 (1992) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    LI-COR, Inc. LI-7700 Methane Analyzer User Manual (LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE 2010), http://envsupport.licor.com/
  21. 21.
    L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E.K. Webb, G.I. Pearman, R. Leuning, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85 (1980) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    X. Lee, W. Massman, B. Law, Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2004) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D.E. Burch, E.B. Singleton, D. Williams, Appl. Opt. 1, 359 (1962) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.M. Welles, D.K. McDermitt, Micrometeorology in Agricultural Systems (American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 2005) Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Gharavi, S.G. Buckley, J. Mol. Spectr. 229, 78 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Burba, T. Anderson, D. Zona, J. Schedlbauer, D. Anderson, R. Eckles, S. Hastings, H. Ikawa, D. McDermitt, S. Oberbauer, W. Oechel, B. Riensche, G. Starr, C. Sturtevant, L. Xu, in American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, vol. B-34, San Francisco, California, 5 p. (2008) Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Zona, W. Oechel, G. Burba, H. Ikawa, C. Sturtevant, in 18th Conference on Atmospheric BioGeosciences, Orlando, Florida, 1.19 (2008) Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Burba, T. Anderson, D. McDermitt, D. Zona, J. Schedlbauer, S. Hastings, H. Ikawa, S. Oberbauer, W. Oechel, G. Starr, C. Sturtevant, L. Xu, in North American Carbon Program. 2nd All-Investigators Meeting, San Diego, California, 17–20 February (2009) Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Jimenez, J. Schedlbauer, S. Oberbauer, E. Gaiser, G. Burba, J. Munyon, G. Starr, in AmeriFlux 2008 Science Meeting, Boulder, CO, October 15–17 (2008) Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Burba, L. Xu, J. Schedlbauer, D. Zona, T. Anderson, D.K. McDermitt, S. Oberbauer, W. Oechel, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, in European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, May 02–07 (2010) Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Clement, EdiRe data software, Version 1.4.3.1101, University of Edinburgh, UK (1999), http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe
  33. 33.
    M. Aubinet, A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, A. Rannik, J. Moncrieff et al., Adv. Ecol. Res. 30, 113 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Moore, Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 37, 17 (1986) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. Kaimal, J. Finnigan, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows—Their Structure and Measurement (Oxford University Press, New York, 1994) Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. Kaimal, J. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, O. Cote, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 563 (1972) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. Werle, Appl. Phys. B (2010). doi:10.1007/s00340-010-4165-9 (this issue)
  38. 38.
    G. Burba, D. McDermitt, A. Grelle, D. Anderson, L. Xu, Glob. Change Biol. 14, 1 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Grelle, G. Burba, Agric. For. Meteorol. 147, 48 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    W. Eugster, W. Senn, Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 74, 321 (1995) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Verma, F. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. Clement, J. Kim, Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289 (1992) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. Harriss, D. Sebacher, K. Bartlett, D. Bartlett, P. Crill, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 2, 231 (1988) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Bubier, T. Moore, N. Roulet, Ecology 74, 2240 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. Moosavi, P. Crill, E. Pullman, D. Funk, K. Peterson, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 287 (1996) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    D. Zona, W. Oechel, J. Kochendorfer, K. Paw U, A. Salyuk, P. Olivas, S. Oberbauer, D. Lipson, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 23. doi:10.1029/2009GB003487 (2009)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. McDermitt
    • 1
  • G. Burba
    • 1
  • L. Xu
    • 1
  • T. Anderson
    • 1
  • A. Komissarov
    • 1
  • B. Riensche
    • 1
  • J. Schedlbauer
    • 2
  • G. Starr
    • 3
  • D. Zona
    • 4
  • W. Oechel
    • 5
  • S. Oberbauer
    • 6
  • S. Hastings
    • 7
  1. 1.LI-COR BiosciencesLincolnUSA
  2. 2.West Chester UniversityWest ChesterUSA
  3. 3.University of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA
  4. 4.University of AntwerpWilrijkBelgium
  5. 5.San Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  6. 6.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  7. 7.Polar Field Services Inc.BarrowUSA

Personalised recommendations