Applied Physics B

, Volume 100, Issue 4, pp 891–896

Effect of etching parameters on antireflection properties of Si subwavelength grating structures for solar cell applications



Silicon (Si) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures were fabricated on Si substrates by holographic lithography and subsequent inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process using SiCl4 with or without Ar addition for solar cell applications. To ensure a good nanosized pattern transfer into the underlying Si layer, the etch selectivity of Si over the photoresist mask is optimized by varying the etching parameters, thus improving antireflection characteristics. For antireflection analysis of Si SWG surfaces, the optical reflectivity is measured experimentally and it is also calculated theoretically by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The reflectance depends on the height, period, and shape of two-dimensional periodic Si subwavelength structures, correlated with ICP etching parameters. The optimized Si SWG structure exhibits a dramatic decrease in optical reflection of the Si surface over a wide angle of incident light (θi), i.e. less than 5% at wavelengths of 300–1100 nm, leading to good wide-angle antireflection characteristics (i.e. solar-weighted reflection of 1.7–4.9% at θi<50°) of Si solar cells.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Y.F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.J. Jen, C.Y. Peng, T.A. Liu, T.K. Hsu, C.L. Pan, H.C. Lo, C.H. Hsu, Y.H. Chang, C.S. Lee, K.H. Chen, L.C. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R.E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O.L. Muskens, G. Immink, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, W.L. Vos, J.G. Rivas, Adv. Mater. 21, 973 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Yu, C.H. Chang, C.H. Chiu, C.S. Yang, J.C. Yu, H.C. Kuo, S.H. Hsu, Y.C. Chang, Adv. Mater. 21, 1618 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.J. Wilson, M.C. Hutley, Opt. Acta 29, 993 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, W. Wittwer, Thin Solid Films 351, 73 (1999) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Ishimori, Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, K. Hane, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4346 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Wensu, S.C. Huang, A. Kechiantz, C.P. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 425 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.H. Sun, W.L. Min, N.C. Linn, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231105 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, S.T. Chou, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2874 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.A. Boden, D.M. Bagnall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, A. Mizutani, H. Kikuta, H. Nakano, Opt. Lett. 26, 1642 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y.M. Song, S.Y. Bae, J.S. Yu, T.Y. Lee, Opt. Lett. 34, 1702 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Chhajed, M.F. Schubert, J.K. Kim, E.F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Yen, E.H. Anderson, R.A. Ghanbari, M.L. Schattenburg, H.I. Smith, Appl. Opt. 31, 4540 (1992) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, V. Wittwer, Thin Solid Films 351, 73 (1999) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Kuo, D.J. Poxson, Y.S. Kim, F.W. Mont, J.K. Kim, E.F. Schubert, S. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, Opt. Rev. 9, 183 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S.Y. Myong, K. Sriprapha, S. Miyajima, M. Konagai, A. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 263509 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Renewable Resource Data Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Cited 15 February 2009
  20. 20.
    D. Buie, M.J. McCann, K.J. Weber, C.J. Dey, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81, 13 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y.J. Lee, D.S. Ruby, D.W. Peters, B.B. McKenzie, J.W.P. Hsu, Nano Lett. 8, 1501 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Leem
    • 1
  • Y. M. Song
    • 2
  • Y. T. Lee
    • 2
  • J. S. Yu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Radio EngineeringKyung Hee UniversityYongin-siRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Information and CommunicationsGwangju Institute of Science and TechnologyGwangjuRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations