Applied Physics B

, Volume 102, Issue 2, pp 303–311 | Cite as

Non-symmetrical line broadening effects using short-pulse QCL spectrometers as determined with sub-nanosecond time-resolution

Open Access
Article

Abstract

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have attracted considerable interest as an alternative tuneable narrow bandwidth light source in the mid-infrared spectral range for chemical sensing. Pulsed QCL spectrometers are often used with short laser pulses and a bias current ramp similar to diode laser spectroscopy. Artefacts in the recorded spectra such as disturbed line shapes or underestimated absorption coefficients have been reported. A detailed time-resolved high-bandwidth analysis of individual pulses during a laser sweep has been performed. Quantitative results for CH4 absorption features around 1347 cm−1 (7.42 μm) fell short of the expected values for reasonable operating conditions of the QCL. The origin of the artefacts using short pulses was identified to be partly of the same nature as in the case of long laser pulses. A complex combination with the tuning principle was found, leading to an apparently increased instrumental broadening (effective line width) and underestimated concentrations at low-pressure conditions.

References

  1. 1.
    R.F. Kazarinov, R.A. Suris, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 5, 707 (1971) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutvhinson, A.Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, A.Y. Cho, Sol. State Commun. 102, 231 (1997) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Namjou, S. Cai, E.A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho, Opt. Lett. 23, 219 (1998) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, Appl. Opt. 39, 6866 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D.M. Sonnenfroh, W.T. Rawlins, M.G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A.L. Hutchinson, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, Appl. Opt. 40, 812 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.D. Nelson, M.S. Zahniser, J.B. McManus, C.E. Kolb, J.L. Jimenez, Appl. Phys. B 67, 433 (1998) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.S. Zahniser, D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, P.L. Kebabian, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 351, 371 (1995) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.D. Nelson, J.H. Shorter, J.B. McManus, M.S. Zahniser, Appl. Phys. B 75, 343 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, M.S. Zahniser, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3325 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Q. Shi, D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, M.S. Zahniser, M.E. Parrish, R.E. Baren, K.H. Shafer, C.N. Harward, Anal. Chem. 75, 5180 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.B. McManus, D.D. Nelson, S.C. Herndon, J.H. Shorter, M.S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, Appl. Phys. B 85, 235 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Weidmann, G. Wysocki, C. Oppenheimer, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 80, 255 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Manne, W. Jäger, J. Tulip, Appl. Phys. B 94, 337 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho, S. Wehe, M.G. Allen, Appl. Opt. 41, 1169 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Wysocki, M. McCurdy, S. So, D. Weidmann, C. Roller, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 43, 6040 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.E. Baren, M.E. Parrish, K.H. Shafer, C.N. Harward, Q. Shi, D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, M.S. Zahniser, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3437 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G.D. Stancu, N. Lang, J. Röpcke, M. Reinicke, A. Steinbach, S. Wege, Chem. Vapor Depos. 13, 351 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Hempel, V. Artyushenko, F. Weichbrodt, J. Röpcke, J. Phys., Conf. Ser. 157, 012003 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Lang, J. Röpcke, H. Zimmermann, A. Steinbach, S. Wege, J. Phys., Conf. Ser. 157, 012007 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, N. Langford, Opt. Lett. 28, 16 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. Beyer, M. Braun, A. Lambrecht, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.T. McCulloch, E.L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, D.A. Newnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1761 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, V. Zeninari, Opt. Lett. 34, 181 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M.T. McCulloch, S. Wright, Chem. Soc. Rev. 34, 921 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M.T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, N. Langford, Mol. Phys. 104, 2767 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A.L. Hutchinson, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, IEEE Circuits Devices 16, 10 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. McCulloch, S. Wright, Mol. Phys. 105, 741 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, V. Zeninari, Appl. Phys. B 90, 177 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Röpcke, L. Mechold, M. Käning, J. Anders, F.G. Wienhold, D. Nelson, M. Zahniser, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3706 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Welzel, J. Röpcke, (in preparation) Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Welzel, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Greifswald (Logos, Berlin, 2009). ISBN 978-3-8325-2345-9 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    L.S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D.C. Benner, M. Birk, L.R. Brown, M.R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L.H. Coudert, V. Dana, V.M. Devi, J.M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.M. Hartmann, K.W. Jucks, A.G. Maki, J.Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R.N. Tolchenov, R.A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INP GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  2. 2.Eindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations