Effects of ions clustering in Nd3+/Al3+-codoped double-clad fiber laser operating near 930 nm
We report experimental and theoretical investigations on the presence and the detrimental effect of neodymium clusters on the three-level transition at near 930 nm in aluminosilicate double-clad fibers. A series of fibers with a W-type refractive index core profile to filter out the competing strong transition at 1060 nm were fabricated to study the impact of clusters on laser efficiency at near 930 nm using different core compositions. Percentage of clustered Nd ions have been evaluated using two methods based either on the saturation of the pump absorption or on laser efficiencies. Laser characterizations and numerical modeling have shown that clustering effect has a strong impact on the laser efficiency at 930 nm and fractions of clustered ions higher than 50% have been found in the most doped fiber.
PACS42.81.Cn 42.62.Fi 42.55.Wd
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