Applied Physics B

, 97:561

Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses

Article

Abstract

We report a comprehensive investigation of femtosecond continuum generation in single crystals of several common laser host materials. The absolute spectral energy density, pulse-to-pulse stability, pump threshold, and beam profile are studied in dependence on the focusing conditions, crystal thickness, pump pulse energy, and pump wavelength (775–1600 nm). Continuum generation is shown at repetition rates of up to 80 MHz and for pump pulse durations of up to 350 fs. In yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), yttrium vanadate (YVO4), gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4), and potassium-gadolinium tungstate (KGW) thresholds below 50 nJ, plateau-like visible and infrared spectra, and higher infrared photon flux as compared to conventional materials like sapphire are found. We discuss the particular advantages of these materials for application in parametric amplification, femtosecond spectroscopy, and carrier-envelope phase stabilization.

PACS

42.25.Dd 42.65.Jx 42.65.Ky 42.65.Re 

References

  1. 1.
    R.R. Alfano, S.L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584 (1970) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.R. Alfano, S.L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592 (1970) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.L. Fork, C.V. Shank, C. Hirlimann, R. Yen, W.J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 1 (1983) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer, Berlin, 2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793 (1996) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 22, 522 (1997) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, U. Keller, J. Phys. B 39, S257 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.J. Jones, S.A. Diddams, J.K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R.S. Windeler, J.L. Hall, S.T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T.W. Hänsch, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.K. Ranka, R.S. Windeler, A.J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Maillotte, R.S. Windeler, B.J. Eggleton, S. Coen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 765 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.K. Reed, M.K. Steiner-Shepard, D.K. Negus, Opt. Lett. 19, 1855 (1994) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.K. Reed, M.K. Steiner-Shepard, M.S. Armas, D.K. Negus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2229 (1995) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.K. Reed, M.S. Armas, M.K. Steiner-Shepard, D.K. Negus, Opt. Lett. 20, 605 (1995) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Wittmann, A. Penzkofer, Opt. Commun. 126, 308 (1996) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Brodeur, S.L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406 (1998) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Brodeur, S.L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637 (1999) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N.P. Ernsting, S.A. Kovalenko, T. Senyushkina, J. Saam, V. Farztdinov, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 3443 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, J. Wachtveitl, Opt. Commun. 194, 443 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Tzankov, I. Buchvarov, T. Fiebig, Opt. Commun. 203, 107 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Raytchev, E. Pandurski, I. Buchvarov, C. Modrakowski, T. Fiebig, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 4592 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 85, 557 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    I. Buchvarov, A. Trifonov, T. Fiebig, Opt. Lett. 32, 1539 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C.F. Sailer, E. Riedle, Appl. Phys. B 96, 215 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Wilhelm, J. Piel, E. Riedle, Opt. Lett. 22, 1494 (1997) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3616 (1997) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, W. Zinth, Appl. Phys. B 71, 457 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Piel, M. Beutter, E. Riedle, Opt. Lett. 25, 180 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S.A. Kovalenko, A.L. Dobryakov, J. Ruthmann, N.P. Ernsting, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2369 (1999) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T. Bizjak, J. Karpiuk, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 10763 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, P. Gilch, J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A.V. Zamyatin, A.V. Soldatova, M.A.J. Rodgers, Inorg. Chim. Acta 360, 857 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Savolainen, D.v.d. Linden, N. Dijkhuizen, J.L. Herek, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 196, 99 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    D.W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, R.A. Mathies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4971 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    M.J. Klopf, P. Norris, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6305 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T.W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. Nagura, A. Suda, H. Kawano, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, Appl. Opt. 41, 3735 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A.K. Dharmadhikari, F.A. Rajgara, D. Mathur, Appl. Phys. B 80, 61 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    I. Nikolov, A. Gaydardzhiev, I. Buchvarov, P. Tzankov, F. Noack, V. Petrov, Opt. Lett. 32, 3342 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, G. Cerullo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B62 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Bass (ed.), Handbook of Optics, Vol. II (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1995) Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J.R. O’Connor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    K. Shimamura, S. Uda, V.V. Kochurikhin, T. Taniuchi, T. Fukuda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1832 (1996) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    I.V. Mochalov, Opt. Eng. 36, 1660 (1997) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M.C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 187 (1999) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. Zhang, X. Meng, J. Liu, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Z. Shao, J. Wang, Y. Liu, J. Cryst. Growth 216, 367 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    D. Milam, M.J. Weber, A.J. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822 (1977) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    H.-D. Jiang, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, H.-R. Xia, X.-B. Hu, B. Teng, C.-Q. Zhang, Opt. Commun. 198, 447 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. Lu, K.-I. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, A.A. Kaminskii, J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Major, F. Yoshino, I. Nikolakakos, J.S. Aitchison, P.W.E. Smith, Opt. Lett. 29, 602 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, Berlin, 2006) Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A.G. Selivanov, I.A. Denisov, N.V. Kuleshov, K.V. Yumashev, Appl. Phys. B 83, 61 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    B.A. Cumberland, J.C. Travers, S.V. Popov, J.R. Taylor, Opt. Express 16, 5954 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J.B. Ashcom, R.R. Gattass, C.B. Shaffer, E. Mazur, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2317 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, P. Dombi, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, New J. Phys. 7, 216 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, E. Riedle, Opt. Lett. 28, 2118 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A.L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J.H. Marburger, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Y.R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1 (1975) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    A.M. Weiner, J.P. Heritage, R.H. Stolen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 364 (1988) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    W. Liu, S.L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I.S. Golubtsov, V.P. Kandidov, Opt. Commun. 225, 193 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, L. Bergé, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M.J. Abel, D.M. Neumark, S.R. Leone, Opt. Lett. 31, 2326 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Q. Xing, K.M. Yoo, R.R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 2087 (1993) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    G.G. Luther, A.C. Newell, J.V. Moloney, E.M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 19, 789 (1994) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    S.L. Chin, S. Petit, W. Liu, A. Iwasaki, M.-C. Nadeau, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, K.Yu. Adrianov, Opt. Commun. 210, 329 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    G.A. Slack, D.W. Oliver, R.M. Chrenko, S. Roberts, Phys. Rev. 177, 1308 (1969) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H.R. Telle, P. Baum, E. Riedle, Appl. Phys. B 81, 875 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    D. Marion, K. Wüthrich, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 113, 967 (1983) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F.W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    M. Bellini, T.W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 25, 1049 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, E. Riedle, Opt. Lett. 28, 185 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    P. Baum, E. Riedle, M. Greve, H.R. Telle, Opt. Lett. 30, 2028 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J.E. Rothenberg, Opt. Lett. 17, 583 (1992) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, Appl. Phys. B 77, 129 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    A. Ozawa, W. Schneider, T.W. Hänsch, T. Udem, P. Hommelhoff, New J. Phys. (in print) Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, P. Krok, E. Riedle, Opt. Lett. 33, 192 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    O.V. Chekhlov, J.L. Collier, I.N. Ross, P.K. Bates, M. Notley, C. Hernandez-Gomez, W. Shaikh, C.N. Danson, D. Neely, P. Matousek, S. Hancock, L. Cardoso, Opt. Lett. 31, 3665 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    F. ., A. Tavella, F. Marcinkevičius, Krausz. Opt. Express 14, 12822 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    J.A. Fülöp, Zs. Major, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, T. Clausnitzer, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, New J. Phys. 9, 438 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    P. Tzankov, J. Zheng, M. Mero, D. Polli, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, Opt. Lett. 31, 3629 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, Y. Petit, M. Fechner, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053856 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    P. Baum, M. Breuer, E. Riedle, G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 31, 2220 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für BioMolekulare OptikLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations