Advertisement

Applied Physics B

, 97:541 | Cite as

Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link

  • O. TerraEmail author
  • G. Grosche
  • K. Predehl
  • R. Holzwarth
  • T. Legero
  • U. Sterr
  • B. Lipphardt
  • H. Schnatz
Open Access
Article

Abstract

We have explored the performance of two “dark fibers” of a commercial telecommunication fiber link for a remote comparison of optical clocks. The two fibers, linking the Leibniz University of Hanover (LUH) with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, are connected in Hanover to form a total fiber length of 146 km. At PTB the performance of an optical frequency standard operating at 456 THz was imprinted to a cw transfer laser at 194 THz, and its frequency was transmitted over the fiber. In order to detect and compensate phase noise related to the optical fiber link we have built a low-noise optical fiber interferometer and investigated noise sources that affect the overall performance of the optical link. The frequency stability at the remote end has been measured using the clock laser of PTB’s Yb+ frequency standard operating at 344 THz.

We show that the frequency of a frequency-stabilized fiber laser can be transmitted over a total fiber length of 146 km with a relative frequency uncertainty below 1×10−19, and short term frequency instability given by the fractional Allan deviation of σ y (τ)=3.3×10−15/(τ/s).

PACS

06.30.Ft 42.62.Eh 42.81.Uv 

References

  1. 1.
    T. Rosenband, D.B. Hume, P.O. Schmidt, C.W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W.H. Oskay, R.E. Drullinger, T.M. Fortier, J.E. Stalnaker, S.A. Diddams, W.C. Swann, N.R. Newbury, W.M. Itano, D.J. Wineland, J.C. Bergquist, Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Boyd, A.D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S.M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T.W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 24, 881–883 (1999) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Schneider, E. Peik, Chr. Tamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230801 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. Coddington, W.C. Swann, L. Lorini, J.C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C.W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K.S. Feder, J.W. Nicholson, P.S. Westbrook, S.A. Diddams, N.R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava’c, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R.J. Jones, K.W. Holman, J.L. Hall, D.J. Jones, S.A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J.C. Bergquist, L.W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K.W. Holman, D.J. Jones, D.D. Hudson, J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 29, 1554 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Amemiya, M. Imae, Y. Fujii, T. Suzuyama, S. Oshima, Y. Taggawa, M. Kihara, IEEJ Trans. Fundam. Mater. 126, 458 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.M. Foreman, K.W. Holman, D.D. Hudson, D.J. Jones, J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Grosche, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), Paper CTuHl (2006) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, Opt. Express 13, 904–909 (2005) and references therein CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T.R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Express 14, 5223–5231 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 27–33 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest, Baltimore, MD, paper CMKK1 (2007) Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    N.R. Newbury, P.A. Williams, W.C. Swan, Opt. Lett. 32, 3056–3058 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Musha, F.-L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, Opt. Express 16, 16459–16466 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, G. Santarelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 2029–2035 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Friebe, A. Pape, M. Riedmann, K. Moldenhauer, T. Mehlstäubler, N. Rehbein, C. Lisdat, E.M. Rasel, W. Ertmer, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Grosche, Phys. Rev. A 78, 033830 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, S. Pugla, J. Millo, P. Gill, Phys. Rev. A 77, 033847 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Chr. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P.-E. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Stoehr, F. Mensing, J. Helmcke, U. Sterr, Opt. Lett. 31, 736 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chr. Tamm, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, S. R Wynands, T. Weyers, E. Schneider, Peik. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 601–604 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. Peik, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, T. Schneider, Chr. Tamm, S.G. Karshenboim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 170801 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    N.R. Newbury, W.C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H.R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, J. Stenger, Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–6 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L.-S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, J.L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A.D. Kersey, M.J. Marrone, M.A. Davis, Electron. Lett. 27, 518–520 (1991) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.A. Barnes, A.R. Chi, L.S. Cutler, D.J. Healey, D.B. Leeson, T.E. Mcgunigal, J.A. Mullen Jr., W.L. Smith, R.L. Sydnor, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105–120 (1971) Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    S.T. Dawkins, J.J. McFerran, A.N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918–925 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, H. Schnatz, Opt. Lett. (2009 in press). arXiv:0904.2679v1. Doc. ID 109337 (posted 30 June)
  34. 34.
    S.R. Stein, in Precision Freq. Control, ed. by E.A. Gerber, A. Ballato, vol. 2 (Academic Press, New York, 1985); see also NIST Tech Note 1337, ed. by D.B. Sullivan, D.W. Allan, D.A. Howe and F.L. Walls (1990) Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    P.A. Williams, W.C. Swann, N.R. Newbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. Lipphardt, G. Grosche, U. Sterr, Chr. Tamm, S. Weyers, H. Schnatz, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1258–1262 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2009

Open AccessThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Terra
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. Grosche
    • 1
  • K. Predehl
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Holzwarth
    • 2
  • T. Legero
    • 1
  • U. Sterr
    • 1
    • 3
  • B. Lipphardt
    • 1
  • H. Schnatz
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Physikalisch-Technische BundesanstaltBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for Quantum OpticsGarchingGermany
  3. 3.Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research (QUEST)HannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations