Transient characteristics of green upconversion emission of Er3+ in MgO:LiNbO3 crystal: Mg threshold concentration effect
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Transient characteristics of upconverted emission (560 nm) of Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystals codoped with 0–7.4 mol% MgO were studied under pulse excitation at 800-nm wavelength. The results show that the transients display considerable Mg-doping-level-dependent nonexponential behavior and a clear Mg optical-damage-resistance threshold concentration effect. Below the Mg threshold concentration, the lifetime increases slightly with the increased Mg concentration. Above the threshold, however, the lifetime drops abruptly by 4–7 times and the nonexponential feature becomes more evident. It is found that each transient can be fitted by a double-exponential function contributed from isolated and clustered Er3+ sites. The fit parameters show that doping of MgO above the threshold concentration increases the clustered Er site concentration and the nonradiative cross relaxation probability. The Mg threshold concentration effect derived from the transients is in qualitative agreement with that from the fluorescence spectrum measured as a function of the Mg concentration. The effect of the Mg threshold concentration on the clustered Er site concentration is qualitatively explained on the basis of the microscopic defect model of MgO:LiNbO3 and is conducted with the Mg site change around the threshold concentration.
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