Advertisement

Applied Physics B

, Volume 90, Issue 1, pp 109–125 | Cite as

On the dependence of the laser-induced incandescence (LII) signal on soot volume fraction for variations in particle size

  • H. BladhEmail author
  • J. Johnsson
  • P.-E. Bengtsson
Article

Abstract

“The laser-induced incandescence (LII) signal is proportional to soot volume fraction” is an often used statement in scientific papers, and it has – within experimental uncertainties – been validated in comparisons with other diagnostic techniques in several investigations. In 1984 it was shown theoretically in a paper by Melton that there is a deviation from this statement in that the presence of larger particles leads to some overestimation of soot volume fractions. In the present paper we present a detailed theoretical investigation of how the soot particle size influences the relationship between LII signal and soot volume fraction for different experimental conditions. Several parameters have been varied; detection wavelength, time and delay of detection gate, ambient gas temperature and pressure, laser fluence, level of aggregation and spatial profile. Based on these results we are able, firstly, to understand how experimental conditions should be chosen in order to minimize the errors introduced when assuming a linear dependence between the signal and volume fraction and secondly, to obtain knowledge on how to use this information to obtain more accurate soot volume fraction data if the particle size is known.

Keywords

Soot Particle Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Primary Particle Size Soot Volume Fraction Primary Particle Diameter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R.J. Santoro, C.R. Shaddix, in Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor and Francis, New York, 2002), p. 252Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Schulz, B.F. Kock, M. Hofmann, H. Michelsen, S. Will, B. Bougie, R. Suntz, G. Smallwood, Appl. Phys. B 83, 333 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L.A. Melton, Appl. Opt. 23, 2201 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.L. Vander Wal, K.J. Weiland, Appl. Phys. B 59, 445 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 60, 51 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, Appl. Opt. 39, 3683 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.R. Shaddix, J.E. Harrington, K.C. Smyth, Combust. Flame 99, 723 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Quay, T.W. Lee, T. Ni, R.J. Santoro, Combust. Flame 97, 384 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Ni, J.A. Pinson, S. Gupta, R.J. Santoro, Appl. Opt. 34, 7083 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Mewes, J.M. Seitzman, in 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Paper AIAA-1996-0538, Reno, NV, 15–18 January (1996)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. Mewes, J.M. Seitzman, Appl. Opt. 36, 709 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.T. Wainner, J.M. Seitzman, S.R. Martin, Am. Inst. Aeronaut. Astronaut. J. 37, 738 (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, F. Liu, O.L. Golder, W.D. Bachalo, Appl. Opt. 44, 6773 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.E. Dec, SAE Technical Paper 970873 (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.R. Snelling, F. Liu, G.J. Smallwood, Ö.L. Gülder, in Proc. 34th National Heat Transfer Conf., NHTC2000-12132, Pittsburg, PA, August 20–22 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H.A. Michelsen, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7012 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.T. Duane, IEEE Trans. Aerospace AS-2, 563 (1964)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.R. Shaddix, K.C. Smyth, Combust. Flame 107, 418 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. Beyer, D.A. Greenhalgh, Appl. Phys. B 83, 455 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.L. Vander Wal, K.A. Jensen, Appl. Opt. 37, 1607 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. Liu, K.J. Daun, V. Beyer, G.J. Smallwood, D.A. Greenhalgh, Appl. Phys. B 87, 179 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Bladh, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Delhay, Y. Bouvier, E. Therssen, P. Desgroux, Appl. Phys. B 83, 423 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Hofmann, W.G. Bessler, C. Schulz, H. Jander, Appl. Opt. 42, 2052 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Bladh, L. Hildingsson, V. Gross, A. Hultqvist, P.-E. Bengtsson, in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K.A. Thomson, D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, F. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 83, 469 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.R. Snelling, F.S. Liu, G.J. Smallwood, Ö.L. Gülder, Combust. Flame 136, 180 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. Liu, M. Yang, F.A. Hill, D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, Appl. Phys. B 83, 383 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.E. Dec, SAE Technical Paper 920115 (1992)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Inagaki, S. Takasu, K. Nakakita, SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0508 (1999)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. Cignoli, S. Benecchi, G. Zizak, Appl. Opt. 33, 5778 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.A. Pinson, D.L. Mitchell, R.J. Santoro, SAE Technical Paper 932650 (1993)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Brown, T. Meyer, J. Gord, V. Belovich, W. Roquemore, in 40th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Paper AIAA 2002-0393, Reno NV, 14–17 January (2002)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    D.L. Hofeldt, SAE Technical Paper 930079 (1993)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. Bladh, P.-E. Bengtsson, Appl. Phys. B 78, 241 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T.L. Farias, Ü.Ö. Köylü, M.G. Carvalho, Appl. Opt. 35, 6560 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C.F. Bohren, D.R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1998)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    N.A. Fuchs, Geophys. Pura Appl. 56, 185 (1963)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    A.V. Filippov, D.E. Rosner, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 43, 127 (2000)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    F. Liu, K.J. Daun, D.R. Snelling, G.J. Smallwood, Appl. Phys. B 83, 355 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A.V. Filippov, M. Zurita, D.E. Rosner, J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 229, 261 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    B.J. McCoy, C.Y. Cha, Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 381 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    G.J. Smallwood, D.R. Snelling, F. Liu, Ö.L. Gülder, J. Heat Transf. 123, 814 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Combustion PhysicsLund Institute of TechnologyLundSweden

Personalised recommendations