Applied Physics B

, Volume 88, Issue 2, pp 297–303

Temperature sensors and optical sensors

Article

Abstract

The dependence of temperature on the fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity ratio using Stark sublevels and thermally coupled (close lying) levels in triply ionized rare earth ions, doped into a variety of glasses and fibers, have been reviewed. Also, it is claimed that not only for the two closely lying levels of triply ionized rare earth ion of the same kind, but also for two different triply ionized rare earth ions, having their excited levels very close to each other, may be used to monitor the temperature.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    I. Walczak, W. Love, T. Cook, R. Slovacek, J. Biosens. Bioelectron. 7, 39 (1992)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Wallace, Y. Yang, M. Campbell, Application of sol–gel processes for fibre optic chemical sensor development, Proc. 10th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf., SPIE (1994), vol. 2360, p. 465Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.D. Kersey, Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.D. Kersey, M.A. Davis, H.J. Patrick, M. Leblanc, K.P. Koo, C.G. Askin, M.A. Putnam, E.J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Mizunami, H. Tatehata, H. Kawashima, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 914 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. O’Keeffe, D. McNamara, Dig. Temp. Sens. 21, 15 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Takashima, R. Wang, N. Shirakawa, B. Prijambaedi, A. Shoji, M. Itoh, Thin Solid Films 486, 145 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.W. Harper, S.A. Nizkorodov, D.J. Nesbitt, Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 381 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Baldini, A. Mignani, Proc. 10th Opt. Fiber sensors Conf., SPIE (1994), vol. 2360, p. 80Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Bohnert, H. Brandle, G. Frosio, Proc. 10th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., SPIE (1994), vol. 2360, p. 16Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Fabiny, S. Vohra, F. Bucholtz, Proc. 10th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., SPIE (1994), vol. 2360, p. 45Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.D. Watt, VLF Radio Engineering (Pergamon, Oxford, 1967), p. 399Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M.L. Burrows, ELF Communications Antennas (Peregrinus, Stevenage, 1978), p. 183Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y.Y. Lo, S.W. Lee, Antenna Handbook Theory Application and Design (Van Nostrand, New York, 1988), p. 2438Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B.Z. Kaplan, U. Suissa, IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 2298 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Sun, Temp. Meas. Control Sci. Indust. 6, 715 (1992)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K.T.V. Grattam, Z.Y. Zhang, Fiber Optic Fluorescence Thermometry (Chapman and Hall, London, 1995)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Sun, Z.Y. Zhang, K.T.V. Grattam, A.W. Paimer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4179 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B.A. Weinstein, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 910 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vineet Kumar Rai, S.B. Rai, Appl. Phys. B 87, 323 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P.W. France, In: Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers, ed. by P.W. France (Blackie, Boca Raton, FL, 1990), pp. 121–147Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Yamada, M. Shimizu, In: Optical Fiber Amplifiers: Materials, Devices and Applications, ed. by S. Sudo (Attech House, Boston, 1997), pp. 534–571Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R.M. Percival, M.W. Phillips, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Tropper, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 2119 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.F. Collins, G.W. Baxter, S.A. Wade, T. Sun, K.T.V. Grattan, Z.Y. Zhang, A.W. Palmer, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4649 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.A. Wade, Ph.D. Thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia (1999)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.A. Wade, E. Maurice, B.P. Petreski, S.F. Collins, G.W. Baxter, Proc. 20th Australian Conf. on Opt. Fiber Technol. (IEEE Society, Sydney, Australia, 1995), pp. 331–334Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vineet Kumar Rai, D.K. Rai, S.B. Rai, Sens. Actuators A 128, 14 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vineet Kumar Rai, Ph.D. Thesis, Banaras Hindu University (2003)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Applications (Springer, Berlin, 1981), pp. 121–147Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.M. Mann, L.G. De Shazer, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2951 (1970)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    W.J. Miniscalco, In: Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, ed. by M.J.F. Digonnet (Marcal Dekker, New York, 1993), pp. 38–42Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vineet Kumar Rai, C.B. de Araujo, Spectrochim. Acta A (2007), in pressGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. Cross, Data Base LASERS-Energy Level Tables, NASA Langley Research Centre Hampton, VA, http://aesd.larc.nasa.gov:80101laserdbmain.htmlGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.P. Feist, A.L. Heyes, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 942 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, R.E. Riman, J. Luminesc. 65, 227 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    H. Kusama, O.J. Sovers, T. Yashioka, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2349 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R.B. Alves, J. Christol, M. Sun, K.A. Wickersheim, Proc. ISA Int. Conf. and Exhibit, Houston. TX, 1983, ISSN: 0065-2814, p. 925Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    K.A. Wickersheim, R.B. Alves, Ind. Res. Dev. 21, 84 (1979)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    S.A. Wade, S.F. Collins, G.W. Baxter, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4743 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vineet Kumar Rai, Anita Rai, Appl. Phys. B 86, 333 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Tripathi, Vineet Kumar Rai, S.B. Rai, Appl. Phys. B 84, 459 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Y. Liu, G. Quian, Z. Wang, M. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 71907 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    H. Berthou, C.K. Jorgensen, Opt. Lett. 15, 1100 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    E. Maurice, G. Monnom, A. Saissy, D.B. Ostrowsky, G.W. Baxter, Opt. Lett. 19, 990 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, A. Saissy, D.B. Ostrowsky, G.W. Baxter, Appl. Opt. 34, 8019 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    E. Maurice, Ph.D. Thesis, Universite de Nice, France (1994)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    G.S. Maciel, L.D.S. Menezes, A.S.L. Gomes, C.B. de Araujo, Y. Messaddeq, A. Florez, M.A. Aegerter, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1474 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    P.V. dos Santos, M.T. de Araujo, A.S. Gouveia-Neto, J.A. Mediros Neto, A.S.B. Sombra, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-35, 395 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Z.Y. Zhang, K.T.V. Grattan, A.W. Palmer, B.T. Meggitt, T. Sun, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2764 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Y. Imai, T. Hokazono, T. Yoshida, Proc. 11th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (JSAP, Japan, 1996), pp. 268–271Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. Jung, B. Lee, Proc. SPIE 3746, 538 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    A.K. Singh, S.B. Rai, D.K. Rai, V.B. Singh, Appl. Phys. B 82, 289 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    G. Tripathi, Vineet Kumar Rai, S.B. Rai, Opt. Mater. (2006), in pressGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vineet Kumar Rai, S.B. Rai, Spectrochim. Acta A (2007), in pressGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vineet Kumar Rai, S.B. Rai, Sens. Transducers J. 74, 839 (2006)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nirupama Rai, Vineet Kumar Rai, Sens. Transducers J. 77, 1040 (2007)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vineet Kumar Rai, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1110 (2007)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    E. Maurice, G. Monnom, S.A. Wade, B.P. Petreski, S.F. Collins, Opt. Rev. 4, 89 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de FísicaUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrasil

Personalised recommendations