Advertisement

Applied Physics B

, Volume 87, Issue 3, pp 539–546 | Cite as

Mid-infrared laser spectroscopic determination of isotope ratios of N2O at trace levels using wavelength modulation and balanced path length detection

  • H. Waechter
  • M.W. Sigrist
Article

Abstract

We present a new mid-infrared laser spectrometer for high-precision measurements of isotopic ratios of molecules at ppm concentrations. Results are discussed for nitrous oxide (N2O), where a precision of 3‰ for a single measurement and a reproducibility of 6‰ have been achieved for a concentration of 825 ppm. The room-temperature laser source employed is based on difference-frequency generation delivering a continuous-wave power up to 23 μW at wavelengths between 4.3 μm and 4.7 μm and a line width of 1 MHz. Two different measurement methods are compared; wavelength modulation with first-harmonic detection and direct absorption spectroscopy by recording the spectrum with a data-acquisition card. Two different detection schemes were employed; either all isotopomers were measured using the long path (36 m) of the multipass cell or a balanced path length detection scheme was used, where the main isotope was measured with a beam along a shorter path (40 cm) in the multipass cell. A single-pass reference cell was designed, offering two different path lengths for balanced path length detection. All combinations of measurement methods and detection schemes were tested regarding precision of a single measurement and long-term stability. The advantages and disadvantages of various measurement approaches are discussed.

Keywords

Absorption Line Quantum Cascade Laser Wavelength Modulation External Cavity Diode Laser Path Detection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    F.K. Tittel, A.A. Kosterev (guest eds.), Appl. Phys. B 85, 171 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Yakir, L.S.L. Sternberg, Oecologia (Berlin) 123, 297 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.R. Bowling, S.D. Sargent, B.D. Tanner, J.R. Ehleringer, Agric. For. Meteorol. 118, 1 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Tesdesco, P. Sarsi, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 171, 465 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F.K. Tittel, D. Weidmann, C. Oppenheimer, L. Gianfrani, Opt. Photon. News 17, 24 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Amann, D. Smith (eds.), Breath Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring (World Scientific, Singapore, 2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Koletzko, M. Haisch, I. Seeboth, B. Braden, K. Hengels, B. Koletzko, P. Hering, Lancet 345, 961 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Graig, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 12, 133 (1957)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Röckmann, J. Kaiser, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, W. Brand, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 1897 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.R. Bowling, P.P. Tans, K.M. Russel, Global Change Biol. 7, 127 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Uehara, K. Yamamoto, T. Kikugawa, N. Yoshida, Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 957 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Gagliardi, S. Borri, F. Tamassia, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 41, 313 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.B. McManus, D.D. Nelson, J.H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Yakir, X.F. Wang, Nature 380, 515 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Rahn, M. Wahlen, Science 278, 1776 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Röckmann, J. Kaiser, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, Atmosph. Chem. Phys. 3, 315 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.M. White, Geochemistry (John-Hopkins University Press, Cornell, 1997), Online Textbook, Chapt. 9 [www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/classes/geo455/Chapters.html]Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Röckmann, J. Kaiser, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, J.N. Crowley, R. Borchers, W.A. Brand, P.J. Crutzen, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10403 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    I.T. Sorokina, K.L. Vodopyanov (eds.), Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (Top. Appl. Phys. 89) (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Faist, Opt. Photon. News 17, 32 (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Waechter, M.W. Sigrist, Mid-infrared coherent sources and applications, in Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry (Nato Sci. Ser. II), ed. by M. Ebrahimzadeh, I.T. Sorokina (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    L.E. Myers, R.C. Eckhardt, M.M. Feyer, R.L. Byer, W.R. Bosenberg, Opt. Lett. 21, 591 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, F. Tamassia, Appl. Phys. B 76, 473 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G.D. Boyd, D.A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3597 (1968)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T.B. Chu, M. Broyer, J. Phys. France 45, 1599 (1984)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Bergamaschi, M. Schupp, G.W. Harris, Appl. Opt. 33, 7704 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    L.S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D.C. Benner, M. Birk, L.R. Brown, M.R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L.H. Coudert, V. Dana, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K.W. Jucks, A.G. Macki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, R.N. Tolchenov, R.A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Gagliardi, A. Castrillo, R.Q. Iannone, E.R.T. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 77, 119 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E.R.T. Kerstel, R. van Trigt, N. Dam, J. Reuss, H.A.J. Meijer, Anal. Chem. 71, 5297 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Castrillo, G. Casa, E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 81, 863 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    E. Theocharous, Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 175 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Quantum Electronics, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing LaboratoryETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations