Quasi-phase matching in LiNbO3 using nonlinear coefficients in the XY plane
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We report quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), where both fundamental and second-harmonic waves are ordinary waves. It provides a lower-limit value for d22 of 1.1 pm/V. The measured temperature and wavelength bandwidth of the second-harmonic signal are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. Since the d22=dYYY nonlinear coefficient of LiNbO3 changes its sign as a result of electric field periodic poling along the Z direction, we deduce that all tensor components of the second-order susceptibility χ(2) of trigonal 3m crystals are reversed, thereby expanding the quasi-phase-matching possibilities in these crystals. Furthermore, it enables the realization of all-optical processes based on the nonlinear coefficients in the XY plane, such as all-optical polarization rotation in PPLN, as well as multipartite entanglement experiments based on simultaneous phase matching using different elements of χ(2) in a single LiNbO3 crystal.
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