Applied Physics B

, 85:355 | Cite as

Detection of trace gases by rapidly-swept continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy: pushing the limits of sensitivity

Article

Abstract

Cavity ringdown (CRD) absorption spectroscopy enables spectroscopic sensing of gases with a high sensitivity and accuracy. Instrumental improvements result in a new high-performance continuous-wave (cw) CRD spectrometer using a rapidly-swept cavity of simple design. It employs efficient data-acquisition procedures, high-reflectivity mirrors, a low-adsorption flow cell, and various compact fibre-optical components in a single-ended transmitter-receiver configuration suitable for remote sensing. Baseline noise levels in our latest cw-CRD experiments yield a competitive noise-equivalent absorption limit of ∼5×10-10 cm-1Hz-1/2, independent of whatever molecules are to be detected. Measurements in the near-infrared wavelength range of 1.51–1.56 μm yield sub-ppmv (i.e., ppbv or better) sensitivity in the gas phase for several representative molecules (notably CO2, CO, H2O, NH3, C2H2, and other hydrocarbons). By measuring spectroscopic features in the 1.525 μm band of C2H2 gas, we realise detection limits of 19 nTorr (2.5×10-11 atm) of neat C2H2 (Doppler-limited at low pressure) and 0.37 ppbv of C2H2 in air (pressure-broadened at 1 atm). Our cw-CRD spectrometer is a high-performance sensor in a relatively simple, low-cost, compact instrument that is amenable to chemical analysis of trace gases in medicine, agriculture, industry, and the environment.

References

  1. 1.
    J.J. Scherer, J.B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R.J. Saykally, Chem. Rev. 97, 25 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.B. Paul, R.J. Saykally, Anal. Chem. 69, 287A (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.D. Wheeler, S.M. Newman, A.J. Orr-Ewing, M.N.R. Ashfold, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K.W. Busch, M.A. Busch (Eds.), Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy – An Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique (ACS Symp. Ser. 720) (Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, 1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.D. van Zee, J.P. Looney (Eds.), Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies (Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 40) (Academic Press, NY, 2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. O’Keefe, D.A.G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Romanini, A.A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Romanini, A.A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B.A. Paldus, J.S. Harris, J. Martin, J. Xie, R.N. Zare, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3199 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    B.A. Paldus, C.C. Harb, T.G. Spence, B. Wilke, J.S. Harris, R.N. Zare, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. He, M. Hippler, M. Quack, Chem. Phys. Lett. 289, 527 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.J. Schulz, W.R. Simpson, Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 523 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.S. Brown, Chem. Rev. 103, 5219 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.M. Ball, R.L. Jones, Chem. Rev. 103, 5239 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B.G. Fidric, R.A. Provencal, S.M. Tan, E.R. Crosson, A.A. Kachanov, B.A. Paldus, Opt. Photon. News 14, 25 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D.B. Atkinson, Analyst 128, 117 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Vallance, New J. Chem. 29, 867 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Mazurenka, A.J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, G.A.D. Ritchie, Ann. Rep. Prog. Chem. C 101, 100 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B.A. Paldus, A.A. Kachanov, Can. J. Phys. 83, 975 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, J.L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, J.L. Hall, Using FM methods with molecules in a high finesse cavity, a demonstrated path to <E-12 absorption sensitivity, In: [4], Chapt. 15, pp. 233–253Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dubé, J.L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Ye, J.L. Hall, Absorption detection at the quantum limit, probing high-finesse cavities with modulation techniques, In: [6], Chapt. 3, pp. 233–127Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T.G. Spence, C.C. Harb, B.A. Paldus, R.N. Zare, B. Wilke, R.L. Byer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E.R. Crosson, K.N. Ricci, B.A. Richman, F.C. Chilese, T.G. Owano, R.A. Provencal, M.W. Todd, J. Glasser, A.A. Kachanov, B.A. Paldus, T.G. Spence, R.N. Zare, Anal. Chem. 74, 2003 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.B. Dudek, P.B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, K.K. Lehmann, Anal. Chem. 75, 4599 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Halmer, G. von Basum, P. Hering, M. Murtz, Opt. Lett. 30, 2314 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y. He, B.J. Orr, Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Y. He, B.J. Orr, Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 215 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Y. He, B.J. Orr, J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 48, 591 (2001)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Y. He, B.J. Orr, Appl. Phys. B 75, 267 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R.A. Shorten, Y. He, B.J. Orr, Aust. J. Chem. 56, 219 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.W. Hahn, Y.S. Yoo, J.Y. Lee, J.W. Kim, H.-W. Lee, Appl. Opt. 38, 1859 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Y. He, B.J. Orr, Appl. Phys. B 79, 941 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. He, B.J. Orr, Appl. Opt. 44, 6752 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M.J. Thorpe, K.D. Moll, R.J. Jones, B. Safdi, J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    F.V. Englich, Y. He, B.J. Orr, Appl. Phys. B 83, 1 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    L.S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L.R. Brown, M.R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L.H. Coudert, V. Dana, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K.W. Jucks, A.G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R.N. Tolchenov, R.A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M.E. Webber, R. Claps, F.V. Englich, F.K. Tittel, J.B. Jeffries, R.K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 40, 4395 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D.M. Sonnenfroh, M.G. Allen, Appl. Opt. 36, 3298 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    R.M. Mihalcea, D.S. Baer, R.K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 36, 8745 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    R.M. Mihalcea, D.S. Baer, R.K. Hanson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    B.L. Upschulte, D.M. Sonnenfroh, M.G. Allen, Appl. Opt. 38, 1506 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    C.E. Miller, L.R. Brown, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228, 329 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Z. Majcherova, P. Macko, D. Romanini, V.I. Perevalov, S.A. Tashkun, J.-L. Teffo, A. Campargue, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 230, 1 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    R.A. Toth, Appl. Opt. 33, 4851 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    R.R. Gamache, J.-M. Hartmann, Can. J. Chem. 82, 1013 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    G. Totschnig, D.S. Baer, J. Wang, F. Winter, H. Hofbauer, R.K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 39, 2009 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    X. Zhou, X. Liu, J.B. Jeffries, R.K. Hanson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Q. Kou, G. Guelachvili, M.A. Temsamani, M. Herman, Can. J. Phys. 72, 1241 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    K. Nakagawa, M. de Labachelerie, Y. Awaji, M. Kourogi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2708 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. El Hachtouki, J. Vander Auwera, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 355 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    G. Modugno, C. Corsi, Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 93 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    M.E. Webber, D.S. Baer, R.K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 40, 2031 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    V. Nagali, S.I. Chou, D.S. Baer, R.K. Hanson, J. Segall, Appl. Opt. 35, 4026 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    A.M. Parkes, B.L. Fawcett, R.E. Austin, S. Nakamichi, D.E. Shallcross, A.J. Orr-Ewing, Analyst 128, 960 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    A.M. Parkes, R.E. Lindley, A.J. Orr-Ewing, Anal. Chem. 76, 7329 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S.M. Beck, Appl. Opt. 24, 1761 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    B. Paldus, B. Richman, A. Kachanov, E. Crosson, Method for increasing the dynamic range of a cavity enhanced optical spectrometer," US Patent Application No. US 2004-966315 (2004); US Patent No. US 2006084180 (2006)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    G. von Basum, D. Halmer, P. Hering, M. Murtz, S. Schiller, F. Müller, A. Popp, F. Kühnemann, Opt. Lett. 29, 797 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    J. Morville, D. Romanini, A.A. Kachanov, M. Chenevier, Appl. Phys. B 78, 465 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    S. Kassi, D. Romanini, A. Campargue, B. Bussery-Honvault, Chem. Phys. Lett. 409, 281 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. Cousin, P. Masselin, W. Chen, D. Boucher, S. Kassi, D. Romanini, P. Szriftgiser, Appl. Phys. B 83, 261 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    D.E. Vogler, M.W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B 83 (2006), DOI: 10.1007/s00340-006-2313-zGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M.E. Webber, M. Pushkarsky, C.K.N. Patel, Appl. Opt. 42, 2119 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, D.V. Serebryakov, A.I. Malinovsky, I.V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    M. Scotoni, A. Rossi, D. Bassi, R. Buffa, S. Iannotta, A. Boschetti, Appl. Phys. B 82, 495 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    M.D. Levenson, B.A. Paldus, T.G. Spence, C.C. Harb, R.N. Zare, M.J. Lawrence, Opt. Lett. 25, 920 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    N.J. van Leeuwen, J.C. Diettrich, A.C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 42, 3670 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    T. Gherman, D. Romanini, Opt. Express 10, 1033 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    I. Debecker, A.K. Mohamed, D. Romanini, Opt. Express. 13, 2906 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Lasers and ApplicationsMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations