Applied Physics B

, Volume 81, Issue 8, pp 1015–1047 | Cite as

Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues

Invited paper

Abstract

We review recent advances in laser cell surgery, and investigate the working mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanoprocessing in biomaterials with oscillator pulses of 80-MHz repetition rate and with amplified pulses of 1-kHz repetition rate. Plasma formation in water, the evolution of the temperature distribution, thermoelastic stress generation, and stress-induced bubble formation are numerically simulated for NA=1.3, and the outcome is compared to experimental results. Mechanisms and the spatial resolution of femtosecond laser surgery are then compared to the features of continuous-wave (cw) microbeams. We find that free electrons are produced in a fairly large irradiance range below the optical breakdown threshold, with a deterministic relationship between free-electron density and irradiance. This provides a large ‘tuning range’ for the creation of spatially extremely confined chemical, thermal, and mechanical effects via free-electron generation. Dissection at 80-MHz repetition rate is performed in the low-density plasma regime at pulse energies well below the optical breakdown threshold and only slightly higher than used for nonlinear imaging. It is mediated by free-electron-induced chemical decomposition (bond breaking) in conjunction with multiphoton-induced chemistry, and hardly related to heating or thermoelastic stresses. When the energy is raised, accumulative heating occurs and long-lasting bubbles are produced by tissue dissociation into volatile fragments, which is usually unwanted. By contrast, dissection at 1-kHz repetition rate is performed using more than 10-fold larger pulse energies and relies on thermoelastically induced formation of minute transient cavities with lifetimes <100 ns. Both modes of femtosecond laser nanoprocessing can achieve a 2–3 fold better precision than cell surgery using cw irradiation, and enable manipulation at arbitrary locations.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Shen YR (1984) The Principles of Nonlinear Optics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vogel A, Venugopalan V (2003) Chem. Rev. 103:577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Venugopalan V, Guerra A, Nahen K, Vogel A (2002) Phys. Rev. Lett. 88:078103CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    König K, Riemann I, Fischer P, Halbhuber K (1999) Cell. Mol. Biol. 45:195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schaffer CB, Brodeur A, García JF, Mazur E (2001) Opt. Lett. 26:93ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Minoshima K, Kowalevicz AM, Hartl I, Ippen E, Fujimoto JG (2001) Opt. Lett. 26:1516ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Watanabe W, Asano T, Yamada K, Itoh K, Nishii J (2003) Opt. Lett. 28:2491PubMedADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Taccheo S, Della Valle G, Osellame R, Cerullo G, Chiodo N, Laporta P, Svelto O, Killi A, Morgner U, Lederer M, Kopf D (2004) Opt. Lett. 29:2626CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Steinert RF, Puliafito CA (1986) The Nd:YAG Laser in Ophthalmology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vogel A, Hentschel W, Holzfuss J, Lauterborn W (1986) Ophthalmology 93:1259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ratkay-Traub I, Ferincz IE, Juhasz T, Kurtz RM, Krueger RR (2003) J. Refract. Surg. 19:94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heisterkamp A, Mamom T, Kermani O, Drommer W, Welling H, Ertmer W, Lubatschowski H (2003) Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 241:511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Juhasz T, Loesel FH, Kurtz RM, Horvath C, Bille JF, Mourou G (1999) IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5:902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han M, Zickler L, Giese G, Walter M, Loesel FH, Bille JF (2004) J. Biomed. Opt. 9:760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vogel A, Nahen K, Theisen D (1996) IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2:847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Heisterkamp A, Ripken T, Lubatschowski H, Mamom T, Drommer W, Welling H, Ertmer W (2002) Appl. Phys. B 74:419CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu W, Kosareva O, Golubtsov IS, Iwasaki A, Becker A, Kandidov VP, Chin SL (2003) Appl. Phys. B 76:215CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mao SS, Quéré F, Guizard S, Mao X, Russo RE, Petite G, Martin P (2004) Appl. Phys. A 79:1695CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kasparian J, Solle J, Richard M, Wolf J-P (2004) Appl. Phys. B 79:947CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kolesik M, Wright EM, Moloney JV (2004) Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:253901CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arnold CL, Heisterkamp A, Ertmer W, Lubatschowski H (2005) Appl. Phys. B 80:247CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fuchs U, Zeitner UD, Tünnermann A (2005) Opt. Express 13:3852CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA (1988) Science 239:487PubMedADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Markham AF (1993) Brit. Med. J. 306:441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bustin SA (2000) J. Mol. Endocrinol. 25:169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Isenberg G, Bielser W, Meier-Ruge W, Remy E (1976) J. Microsc. 107:19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Meier-Ruge W, Bielser W, Remy E, Hillenkamp F, Nitsche R, Unsöld R (1976) Histochem. J. 8:387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schütze K, Pösl H, Lahr G (1998) Cell. Mol. Biol. 44:735Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schütze K, Lahr G (1998) Nat. Biotechnol. 16:737CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lahr G (2000) Lab. Invest. 80:1477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Lorenz, Mechanismen des Katapultierens biologischer Strukturen mit UV-Laserpulsen. Diploma Thesis, University of Applied Science Lübeck (2004) [in German]. Accessible through vogel@bmo.uni-luebeck.deGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sims CE, Meredith GD, Krasieva TB, Berns MW, Tromberg BJ, Allbritton NL (1998) Anal. Chem. 700:4570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rau KR, Guerra A, Vogel A, Venugopalan V (2004) Appl. Phys. Lett. 84:2940CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Berns MW, Aist J, Edwards J, Strahs K, Girton J, McNeil P, Kitzes JB, Hammer-Wilson M, Liaw L-H, Siemens A, Koonce M, Peterson S, Brenner S, Burt J, Walter R, Bryant PJ, van Dyk D, Coulombe J, Cahill T, Berns GS (1981) Science 213:505PubMedADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liang H, Wright WH, Cheng S, He W, Berns MW (1993) Exp. Cell Res. 204:110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Greulich KO (1999) Micromanipulation by Light in Biology and Medicine. Birkhäuser, Basel Boston BerlinGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    König K, Riemann I, Fritsche W (2001) Opt. Lett. 26:819ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sato S, Higurashi E, Taguchi Y, Inaba H (1992) Appl. Phys. B 54:531CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schütze K, Clement-Sengewald A (1994) Nature 368:667CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Neev J, Tadir Y, Ho P, Berns MW, Asch RH, Ord T (1992) J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 9:513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Antinori S, Panci C, Selman HA, Caffa B, Dani G, Versaci C (1996) Hum. Reprod. 11:590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rink K, Delacretaz G, Salathé R, Senn A, Noccera D, Germond M, De Grandi P, Fakan S (1996) Laser. Surg. Med. 18:52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mantoudis E, Podsiadly BT, Gorgry A, Venkat G, Craft IL (2001) Hum. Reprod. 16:2182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tsukakoshi M, Kurata S, Nomiya Y, Ikawa Y, Kasuya T (1984) Appl. Phys. B 35:135CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kurata S-I, Tsukakoshi M, Kasuya T, Ikawa Y (1986) Exp. Cell Res. 162:372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tao W, Wilkinson J, Stanbridge E, Berns MW (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:4180PubMedADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Palumbo G, Caruso M, Crescenzi E, Tecce MF, Roberti G, Colasanti A (1996) J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 36:41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Krasieva TB, Chapman CF, LaMorte VJ, Venugopalan V, Berns MW, Tromberg BJ (1998) Proc. SPIE 3260:38CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Buer CS, Gahagan KT, Swartzlander Jr GS, Weathers PJ (1998) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 60:348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Soughayer JS, Krasieva T, Jacobson SC, Ramsey JM, Tromberg BC, Albritton NL (2000) Anal. Chem. 72:1342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shirahata Y, Ohkohchi N, Itagak H, Satomi S (2001) J. Invest. Med. 49:184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schneckenburger H, Hendiger A, Sailer R, Strauss WSL, Schmitt M (2002) J. Biomed. Opt. 7:410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tirlapur UK, König K (2002) Nature 418:290CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mohanty SK, Sharma M, Gupta P (2003) Biotechnol. Lett. 25:895CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zeira E, Manevitch A, Khatchatouriants A, Pappo O, Hyam E, Darash-Yahana M, Tavor E, Honigman A, Lewis A, Galun E (2003) Mol. Ther. 8:342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Paterson L, Agate B, Comrie M, Ferguson R, Lake TK, Morris JE, Carruthers AE, Brown CTA, Sibbett W, Bryant PE, Gunn-Moore F, Riches AC, Dholakia K (2005) Opt. Express 13:595CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Huettmann G, Birngruber R (1999) IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5:954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jay DG, Sakurai T (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1424(2–3):M39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hüttmann G, Serbin J, Radt B, Lange B, Birngruber R (2001) Proc. SPIE 4257:398CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Beck S, Sakurai T, Eustace B, Beste G, Schier R, Rudert F, Jay DG (2002) Proteomics 2:247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pitsillides CM, Joe EK, Wei X, Anderson RR, Lin CP (2003) Biophys. J. 84:4023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    C.P. Yao, R. Rahmanzadeh, E. Endl, Z. Zhang, J. Gerdes, G. Hüttmann, J Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005) in pressGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tschachotin S (1912) Biol. Zbl. 32:623Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bessis M, Nomarski G (1960) J. Biophys. Biochem. Cy. 8:777Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Moreno G, Lutz M, Bessis M (1969) Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol. 7:99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bessis M, Gires F, Mayer G, Nomarski G (1962) C.R. Acad. Sci. III – Vie 255:1010Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Amy RL, Storb R (1965) Science 150:756ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Storb R, Amy RL, Wertz RK, Fauconnier B, Bessis M (1966) J. Cell Biol. 31:11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Berns MW, Olson RS, Rounds DE (1969) Nature 221:74ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Berns MW, Cheng WK, Floyd AD, Ohnuki Y (1971) Science 171:903PubMedADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stonington OG, Spurck TP, Snyder JA, Picket-Heaps JD (1989) Protoplasma 153:62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bessis M (1971) Adv. Biol. Med. Phys. 13:209Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Calmettes PP, Berns MW (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:7197PubMedADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Khodjakov A, Cole RW, Rieder CL (2000) Curr. Biol. 10:59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Colombelli J, Grill SW, Stelzer EHK (2004) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75:472CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Botvinick EL, Venugopalan V, Shah JV, Liaw LH, Berns M (2004) Biophys. J. 87:4203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sacconi L, Tolic-Norrelyke IM, Antolini R, Pavone FS (2005) J. Biomed. Opt. 10:014002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Aist JR, Liang H, Berns MW (1993) J. Cell Sci. 104:1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yanik MF, Cinar H, Cinar HN, Chisholm AD, Jin Y, Ben-Yakar A (2004) Nature 432:822CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vogel A, Noack J, Nahen K, Theisen D, Busch S, Parlitz U, Hammer DX, Nojin GD, Rockwell BA, Birngruber R (1999) Appl. Phys. B 68:271CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Noack J, Vogel A (1999) IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35:1156ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Meldrum RA, Botchway SW, Wharton CW, Hirst GJ (2003) EMBO Rep. 12:1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Watanabe W, Arakawa N, Matsunaga S, Higashi T, Fukui K, Isobe K, Itoh K (2004) Opt. Express 12:4203CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Heisterkamp A, Maxwell IZ, Mazur E, Underwood JM, Nickerson JA, Kumar S, Ingber DE (2005) Opt. Express 13:3690CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shen N, Datta D, Schaffer CB, LeDuc P, Ingber DE, Mazur E (2005) Mech. Chem. Biosyst. 2:17Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Supatto W, Dèbarre D, Moulia B, Brouzés E, Martin J-L, Farge E, Beaurepaire E (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1047CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    S.H. Chung, D.A. Clark, C.V. Gabel, E. Mazur, A.D.T. Samuel, J. Neurosci. 25 (2005) in pressGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    König K, Krauss O, Riemann I (2002) Opt. Express 10:171ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Riemann I, Anhut T, Stracke F, Le Harzic R, König K (2005) Proc. SPIE 5695:216CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Oraevsky AA, Da Silva LB, Rubenchik AM, Feit MD, Glinsky ME, Perry MD, Mammini BM, Small IV W, Stuart B (1996) IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2:801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vogel A, Noack J (2001) Proc. SPIE 4260:83CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Khodjakov A, Cole RW, Oakley BR, Rieder CL (1997) Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 38:311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Grill SW, Howard J, Schäffer E, Stelzer EHK, Hyman AA (2003) Science 301:518ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Colombelli J, Reynaud EG, Rietdorf J, Pepperkork R, Stelzer EHK (2005) Traffic 6:1093CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Smith NI, Fujita K, Kaneko T, Katoh K, Nakamura O, Kawata S, Takamatsu T (2001) Appl. Phys. Lett. 79:1208CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Vogel A, Busch S, Parlitz U (1996) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100:148CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Vogel A, Noack J, Hüttmann G, Paltauf G (2002) Proc. SPIE 4633:23CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Oehring H, Riemann I, Fischer P, Halbhuber KJ, König K (2000) Scanning 22:263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Docchio F, Sachhi CA, Marshall J (1986) Lasers Ophthalmol. 1:83Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sacchi CA (1991) J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8:337ADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Williams F, Varama SP, Hillenius S (1976) J. Chem. Phys. 64:1549CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Grand D, Bernas A, Amouyal E (1979) Chem. Phys. 44:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nikogosyan DN, Oraevsky AA, Rupasov V (1983) Chem. Phys. 77:131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Keldysh LV (1965) Sov. Phys. JETP 20:1307MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ammosov MV, Delone NB, Krainov VP (1986) Sov. Phys. JETP 64:1191Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ready JF (1971) Effects of High Power Laser Radiation. Academic, Orlando, p 261Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Thornber KK (1981) J. Appl. Phys. 52:279CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Arnold D, Cartier E (1992) Phys. Rev. B 46:15102CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ridley BK (1999) Quantum Processes in Semiconductors. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kennedy PK (1995) IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31:2241ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Feng Q, Moloney JV, Newell AC, Wright EM, Cook K, Kennedy PK, Hammer DX, Rockwell BA, Thompson CR (1997) IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33:127CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tien AC, Backus S, Kapteyn H, Murnane M, Mourou G (1999) Phys. Rev. Lett. 82:3883CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kaiser A, Rethfeld B, Vicanek M, Simon G (2000) Phys. Rev. B 61:11437CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Keldysh LV (1960) Sov. Phys. JETP 11:509Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rethfeld B (2004) Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:187401CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Stuart BC, Feit MD, Hermann S, Rubenchik AM, Shore BW, Perry MD (1996) Phys. Rev. B 53:1749CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bloembergen N (1974) IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10:375ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sun Q, Jiang H, Liu Y, Wu Z, Yang H, Gong Q (2005) Opt. Lett. 30:320CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Joglekar AP, Liu H, Spooner GJ, Meyhöfer E, Mourou G, Hunt AL (2003) Appl. Phys. B 77:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Joglekar AP, Liu H, Meyhöfer E, Mourou G, Hunt AL (2004) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 101:5856CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Feit MD, Komashko AM, Rubenchik AM (2004) Appl. Phys. A 79:1657CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hammer DX, Thomas RJ, Noojin GD, Rockwell BA, Kennedy PA, Roach WP (1996) IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3:670ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lenzner M, Krüger J, Sartania S, Cheng Z, Spielmann C, Mourou G, Kautek W, Krausz F (1998) Phys. Rev. Lett. 80:4076CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Carslaw HS, Jaeger JC (1959) Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Docchio F (1988) Europhys. Lett. 6:407ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Nahen K, Vogel A (1996) IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2:861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    J. Noack, Optischer Durchbruch in Wasser mit Laserpulsen zwischen 100 ns und 100 fs, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Lübeck (1998)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Noack J, Hammer DX, Noojin GD, Rockwell BA, Vogel A (1998) J. Appl. Phys. 83:7488CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Du D, Liu X, Mourou G (1996) Appl. Phys. B 63:617ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    D. Du, J. Squier, R. Kurtz, V. Elner, X. Liu, G. Güttmann, G. Mourou, in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, ed. by P.F. Barbara, W.H. Knox, G.A. Mourou, A.H. Zewail (Springer, New York 1994), p. 254Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Stern D, Schoenlein RW, Puliafito CA, Dobi ET, Birngruber R, Fujimoto JG (1989) Arch. Ophthalmol. – Chic. 107:587Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Niemz MH, Hoppeler TP, Juhasz T, Bille FJ (1993) Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5:149Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hughes TP (1975) Plasmas and Laser Light. Adam Hilger, BristolGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Godwin RP, van Kessel CGM, Olsen JN, Sachsenmaier P, Sigel R (1977) Z. Naturforsch. 32a:1100ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    von der Linde D, Schüler H (1996) J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13:216ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hammer DX, Jansen ED, Frenz M, Noojin GD, Thomas RJ, Noack J, Vogel A, Rockwell BA, Welch AJ (1997) Appl. Opt. 36:5630ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Fan CH, Sun J, Longtin JP (2002) J. Appl. Phys. 91:2530CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Fan CH, Sun J, Longtin JP (2002) J. Heat Trans. – T. ASME 124:275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Rayner DM, Naumov A, Corkum PB (2005) Opt. Express 13:3208CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Born M, Wolf E (1970) Principles of Optics. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ditlbacher H, Krenn JR, Leitner A, Aussenegg FR (2004) Opt. Lett. 29:1408CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Grill S, Stelzer EHK (1999) J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16:2658ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Garret BC, Dixon DA, Camaioni DM, Chipman DM, Johnson MA, Jonah CD, Kimmel GA, Miller JH, Rescigno TN, Rossky PJ, Xantheas SS, Colson SD, Laufer AH, Ray D, Barbara PF, Bartels DM, Becker KH, Bowen KH, Bradforth SE, Carmichael I, Coe JV, Corrales LR, Cowin JP, Dupuis M, Eisenthal KB, Franz JA, Gutowski MS, Jordan KD, Kay BD, LaVerne JA, Lymar SV, Madey TE, McCurdy CW, Meisel D, Mukamel S, Nilsson AR, Orlando TM, Petrik NG, Pimblott SM, Rustad JR, Schenter GK, Singer SJ, Tokmakoff A, Wang LS, Wittig C, Zwier TS (2005) Chem. Rev. 105:355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tirlapur UK, König K, Peuckert C, Krieg R, Halbhuber K-J (2001) Exp. Cell Res. 263:88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Boudaiffa B, Cloutier P, Hunting D, Huels MA, Sanche L (2000) Science 287:1658ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    H. Hotop, in L.G. Christophorou, J.K. Olthoff (eds.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics IX, Ellicott City, MD, USA, 22–25 May 2001 (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 2001), p. 3Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Gohlke S, Illenberger E (2002) Europhys. News 33:207ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Huels MA, Boudaiffa B, Cloutier P, Hunting D, Sanche L (2003) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125:4467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Mitchinson T, Kirschner M (1984) Nature 312:237CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Jánosi IM, Chrétien D, Flyvberg H (2002) Biophys. J. 83:1317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    H.O. Jeschke, E.M. Garcia, in Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics and Ultrafast Phenomena with X-rays, ed. by B.W. Adams (Kluwer Academic, Boston Dordrecht London 2003), p. 175Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bulgakova NM, Stoian R, Rosenfeld A, Hertel IV, Campbell EEB (2004) Phys. Rev. B 69:054102CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Nolte S, Momma C, Jacobs H, Tünnermann A, Chikov BN, Wellegehausen B, Welling H (1997) J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14:2716ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kuchling H (1991) Taschenbuch der Physik, 13th edn. Fachbuchverlag LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Paltauf G, Schmidt-Kloiber H (1999) Appl. Phys. A 68:525CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Paltauf G, Dyer P (2003) Chem. Rev. 103:487CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sigrist MW, Kneubühl FK (1978) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64:1652CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Paltauf G, Schmidt-Kloiber H (1996) Appl. Phys. A 62:303ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Skripov VP, Sinitsin EN, Pavlov PA, Ermakov GV, Muratov GN, Bulanov NV, Baidakov VG (1988) Thermophysical Properties of Liquids in the Metastable (Superheated) State. Gordon and Breach, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Köstli KP, Frenz M, Bebie H, Weber HP (2001) Phys. Med. Biol. 46:1863CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Cox BT, Beard PC (2005) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117:3616CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Brennen CE (1995) Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics. Oxford University Press, New York OxfordGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kiselev SB (1999) Physica A 269:252CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kiselev SB, Ely JF (2001) Physica A 299:357CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Debenedetti PG (1996) Metastable Liquids: Concepts and Principles. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Fisher JC (1948) J. Appl. Phys. 19:1062CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Zheng Q, Durben DJ, Wolf GH, Angell CA (1991) Science 254:829ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Garrison B, Itina TE, Zhigilei LV (2003) Phys. Rev. E 68:041501CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    F.R. Gilmore, Calif. Inst. Tech. Rep. 26-4 (1952)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Knapp RT, Daily JW, Hammitt FG (1971) Cavitation. McGraw-Hill, New York , pp 117–131Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Staudenraus J, Eisenmenger W (1993) Ultrasonics 31:267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Paltauf G, Schmidt-Kloiber H (1997) J. Appl. Phys. 82:1525CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Noack J, Vogel A (1998) Appl. Opt. 37:4092ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Rice MH, Walsh JM (1957) J. Chem. Phys. 26:824CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Barnes PA, Rieckhoff KE (1968) Appl. Phys. Lett. 13:282CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Stolarski J, Hardman J, Bramlette CG, Noojin GD, Thomas RJ, Rockwell BA, Roach WP (1995) Proc. SPIE 2391:100CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Chapyak EJ, Godwin RP, Vogel A (1997) Proc. SPIE 2975:335CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Zysset B, Fujimoto JG, Deutsch TF (1989) Appl. Phys. B 48:139CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Glezer EN, Mazur E (1997) Appl. Phys. Lett. 71:882CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Schaffer CB, Nishimura N, Mazur E (1998) Proc. SPIE 3451:2CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Juhasz T, Kastis GA, Suarez C, Bor Z, Bron WE (1996) Laser. Surg. Med. 19:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Schaffer CB, Nishimura N, Glezer EN, Kim AM-T, Mazur E (2002) Opt. Express 10:196ADSGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    C.P. Cain, R.J. Thomas, G.D. Noojin, D.J. Stolarski, P.K. Kennedy, G.D. Buffington, B.A. Rockwell, Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. Published online (7 July 2004)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Vogel A, Nahen K, Theisen D, Birngruber R, Thomas RJ, Rockwell BA (1999) Appl. Opt. 38:3636ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Glebov LB, Efimov OM, Petrovski GT, Rogovtsev PN (1984) Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15:226CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Efimov OM (2004) J. Opt. Technol. 71:338Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Soileau MJ, Williams WF, Mansour N, Van Stryland EW (1989) Opt. Eng. 28:1133ADSGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Dayton PA, Chomas JE, Lunn AFH, Allen JS, Lindner JR, Simon SI, Ferrara KW (2001) Biophys. J. 80:1547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lin CP, Kelly MW, Sibayan SAB, Latina MA, Anderson RR (1999) IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5:963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Leszczynski D, Pitsillides CM, Pastila RK, Anderson RR, Lin CP (2001) Radiat. Res. 156:399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Lord Rayleigh (1917) Philos. Mag. 34:94Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Neumann J, Brinkmann R (2005) Proc. SPIE 5863:586307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Needham D, Nunn RS (1990) Biophys. J. 58:997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    V. Kotaidis, A. Plech, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005) in pressGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Lokhandwalla M, Sturtevant B (2001) Phys. Med. Biol. 46:413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Boal D (2002) Mechanics of the Cell. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Wolfrum B, Mettin R, Kurz T, Lauterborn W (2002) Appl. Phys. Lett. 81:5060CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    M.J. Zohdy, C. Tse, J.Y. Ye, M. O’Donnell, IEEE T. Ultrason. Ferr. 52 (2005) in pressGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Crum LA (1984) Ultrasonics 22:215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Leighton TG (1994) The Acoustic Bubble. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Vogel A (2001) Optical Breakdown in Water and Ocular Media, and Its Use for Intraocular Photodisruption. Shaker Verlag, AachenGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Koester HJ, Baur D, Uhl R, Hell SW (1999) Biophys. J. 77:2226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Hopt A, Neher E (2001) Biophys. J. 80:2029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Eggeling C, Volkmer A, Seidel CAM (2005) Chem. Phys. Chem. 6:791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Masters BR, So PTC, Buehler C, Barry N, Sutin JD, Mantulin WW, Gratton E (2004) J. Biomed. Opt. 9:1265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Roegener J, Brinkmann R, Lin CP (2004) J. Biomed. Opt. 9:367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Watanabe W, Matsungata S, Shimada T, Higashi T, Fukui K, Itoh K (2005) Med. Laser Appl. 20:185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Neumann J, Brinkmann R (2005) J. Biomed. Opt. 10:024001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    König K, Liang H, Berns MW, Tromberg BJ (1995) Nature 377:20CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    König K (2000) J. Microsc. 200:83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    K. König, in Methods in Cellular Imaging, ed. by A. Periasamy (Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001), p. 236Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    J. Pearce, S. Thomsen, in Optical–Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, ed. by A.J. Welch, M. van Germert (Plenum, New York 1995), p. 561Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Simanowski D, Sarkar M, Irani A, O’Connel-Rodwell C, Contag C, Schwettman A, Palanker D (2005) Proc. SPIE 5695:254CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Descloux L, Rastegar S, Delacretaz G, Hollis A, Rink K (1998) Proc. SPIE 3195:137CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Denk WJ, Strickler JH, Webb WW (1990) Science 248:73ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    So PTC (1998) Opt. Express 3:312ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    König K, Becker TW, Fischer P, Riemann I, Halbhuber KJ (1999) Opt. Lett. 24:113ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Guo Y, Ho PP, Tirksliunas A, Liu F, Alfano RR (1997) Opt. Lett. 22:1323ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Moreaux L, Sandre O, Mertz J (2000) J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17:1685ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Chu S-W, Liu TM, Sun C-K, Lin C-Y, Tsai H-J (2003) Opt. Express 11:933ADSGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Fu L, Gan X, Gu M (2005) Opt. Lett. 30:385CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    W.J. Denk, D.W. Piston, W.W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, ed. by J.B. Prawley (Plenum, New York 1995), p. 445Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Schönle A, Hell S (1998) Opt. Lett. 23:325ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Berns MW, Wang Z, Dunn A, Wallace V, Venugopalan V (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:9504CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Hosokawa Y, Takabayashi H, Miura S, Shukunami C, Hiraki Y, Masuhara H (2004) Appl. Phys. A 79:795CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Barron JA, Wu P, Ladouceur HD, Ringeisen BR (2004) Biomed. Microdev. 6:139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Ringeisen BR, Kim H, Barron JA, Krizman DB, Chrisey DB, Jackman S, Auyeung RYC, Spargo BJ (2004) Tissue Eng. 10:483CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Ripken T, Oberheide U, Ziltz C, Ertmer W, Gerten G, Lubatschowski H (2005) Proc. SPIE 5688:278CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Toth CA, Narayan DG, Noojin GD, Winter KP, Rockwell BA, Roach WP (1997) Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci. 38:2204Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Rockwell BA, Hammer DX, Hopkins RA, Payne DJ, Toth CA, Roach WP, Druessel JJ, Kennedy PK, Amnotte RE, Eilert B, Phillips S, Noojin GD, Stolarski DJ, Cain C (1999) J. Laser Appl. 11:42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Schaffer CB, García JF, Mazur E (2003) Appl. Phys. A 71:351CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Bass M (ed) (1995) Handbook of Optics, vol II. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Efimov OM, Gabel K, Garnov SV, Glebov LB, Grantham S, Richardson M, Soileau MJ (1998) J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15:193ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Hertwig A, Martin S, Krüger J, Kautek W (2004) Appl. Phys. A 79:1075CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Watanabe W, Toma T, Yamada K, Nishii J, Hayashi K, Itoh K (2000) Opt. Lett. 25:1669ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Streltsov AM, Borelli NF (2002) J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19:2496ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Poumellec B, Sudrie L, Franco M, Prade B, Mysyrowicz A (2003) Opt. Express 9:1070ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Bhardwaj VR, Corkum PB, Rayner DM, Hnatowsky C, Simova E, Taylor RS (2004) Opt. Lett. 29:1312CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Juodkazis S, Yamasaki K, Mizeikis V, Matsuo S, Misawa H (2004) Appl. Phys. A 79:1549ADSGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Saul A, Wagner W (1989) J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 18:1537ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Biomedizinische OptikUniversität zu LübeckLübeckGermany
  2. 2.Institut für PhysikKarl-Franzens-Universität GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations