Applied Physics B

, Volume 81, Issue 1, pp 93–99 | Cite as

Energy transfer in a thin film of TPD fluorescent molecules doped with PtOEP and Ir(ppy)3 phosphorescent molecules



A thin film of triphenylamine dimer, N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (TPD), doped with fac tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy)3) and platinum octaethyl porphine (PtOEP) is characterized by photoluminescence emission measurements at several excitation wavelengths and photoluminescence excitation measurements at relevant emission wavelengths in the temperature range from 10 K to room temperature. The investigated film is a phosphorescent OLED material with singlet absorbing host (TPD) and triplet emitting guests [Ir(ppy)3 and PtOEP]. At short wavelength excitation simultaneous triple band emission from singlet TPD, triplet Ir(ppy)3 and TPD, and from triplet PtOEP is observed. Förster-type singlet-singlet state energy transfer from TPD to Ir(ppy)3 and PtOEP, intra-component intersystem crossing, and Dexter-type triplet-triplet energy transfer between the substituents are studied.


42.70 JK 33.50-j 33.50 Dq 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M.A. Baldo, M.E. Thompson, Pure Appl. Chem. 71, 2095(1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.A. Baldo, M. Segal, Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) 201, 1205 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.A. Baldo, S.R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10958 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Goushi, R. Kwong, J.J. Brown, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7798 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Goushi, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L937 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Kalinowski, W. Stamor, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, P. Di Marco, Chem. Phys. 297, 39 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.J. Holmes, S.R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R.C. Kwong, J.J. Brown, S. Garon, M.E. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2422 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Segal, M.A. Baldo, R.J. Holmes, S.R. Forrest, Z.G. Soos, Phys. Rev. B 68, 075211 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P.E. Burrows, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. Watanabe, K. Nakamura, S. Kawami, Y. Fukuda, T. Tsuji, T. Wakimoto, S. Miyaguchi, SPIE 4105, 175 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.J. Yang, T. Tsutsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 39(8A), L828 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Kawamura, S. Yanagida, S.R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 87 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M.A. Baldo, C. Adachi, S.R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10967 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H.-E. Lee, C. Adachi, P.E. Burrows, S.R. Forrest, M.E. Thompson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.R. Das, C.-L. Lee, J.-J. Kim, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 708, BB3.39.1 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    X. Gong, J.C. Ostrowski, D. Moses, G.C. Guillermo, C. Bazan, A.J. Heeger, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 439 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    X. Gong, J.C. Ostrowski, D. Moses, G.C. Guillermo, C. Bazan, A.J. Heeger, J. Polymer Sci. Part B, Polymer Physics 41, 2691 (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Shen, H. Xia, C. Zhang, D. Lin, X. Liu, Y. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 55 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Yagyu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 130 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.A. Baldo, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, Nature 403, 750 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R.C. Kwong, S. Lamansky, M.E. Thompson, Adv. Mater. 12, 1134 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C.-L. Lee, K.B. Lee, J.-J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2280 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. Cleave, G. Yahioglu, P.L. Barny, R.H. Friend, N. Tessler, Adv. Mater. 11, 285 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R.W.T. Higgins, A.P. Monkman, H.-G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 99 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.F. O’Brien, C. Giebeler, R.B. Fletcher, A.J. Cadby, L.C. Palilis, D.G. Lidzey, P.A. Lane, D.D.C. Bradley, W. Blau, Synth. Met. 116, 379 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    P.A. Lane, L.C. Palilis, D.F. O’Brien, C. Giebeler, A.J. Cadby, D.G. Lidzey, A.J. Campbell, W. Blau, D.D.C. Bradley, Phys. Rev. B 63, 235206 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D.F. O’Brien, M.A. Baldo, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 442 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.A. Baldo, D.F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Silbey, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, T. Tsuboi, Chem. Phys. 308, 93 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C.W. Tang, S.A. Van Slyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C.W. Tang, S.A. Van Slyke, C.H. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Adachi, T. Tsutsui, S. Saaito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1489 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Adachi, T. Tsutsui, S. Saaito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 799 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Y. Ohmori, A. Fujii, M. Uccida, C. Morishima, K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3250 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Ohmori, A. Fujii, M. Uchida, C. Morishima, K. Yoshino, J. Phys. Condens. Mater. 5, 7979 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R.H. Jordan, L.J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, R.E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Okutso, T. Onikubo, M. Tamano, T. Enokida, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 1302 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. Pfeiffer, H.-H. Hörhold, H. Boerner, H. Nikol, W. Busselt, SPIE 3476, 258 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    N. Tada, S. Tatsuhara, A. Fujii, Y. Ohmori, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L421 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    T. Tsuboi, H. Murayama, A. Penzkofer, Thin Solid Films, to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H.-H. Hörhold, Synth. Metals 113, 281 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. Tsuboi, M. Tanigawa, Thin Solid Films 438/439, 301 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    W. Holzer, M. Pichlmaier, A. Penzkofer, D.D.C. Bradley, W.J. Blau, Chem. Phys. 246, 445 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. Philip, W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, H.-H. Hoerhold, Synth. Metals 132, 297 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    H. Mattousi, H. Murata, C.D. Merritt, Y. Iizumi, J. Kid, Z.H. Kafafi, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2642 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. Kalinowski, G. Giro, P. Di Marco, N. Camaioni, V. Fattori, Chem. Phys. Lett. 265, 607 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Th. Förster, Fluoreszenz Organisscher Verbindungen (Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1951)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D.L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    S.P. McGlynn, T. Azumi, M. Kinoshita, Molecular Spectroscopy of the Triplet State (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1969)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    C. Birkmann, A. Penzkofer, T. Tsuboi, Appl. Phys. B 77, 625 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringKyoto Sangyo UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Institut II—Experimentelle und Angewandte PhysikUniversität RegensburgRegensburgGermany

Personalised recommendations