Beaming effect from increased-index photonic crystal waveguides
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We study the beaming effect of light for the case of increased-index photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides, formed through the omission of low-dielectric media in the waveguide region. We employ the finite-difference time-domain numerical method for characterizing the beaming effect and determining the mechanisms of loss and the overall efficiency of the directional emission. We find that, while this type of PhC waveguide is capable of producing a highly collimated emission as was demonstrated experimentally, the inherent characteristics of the structure result in a restrictively low efficiency in the coupling of light into the collimated beam of light.
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