Atom lithography with two-dimensional optical masks
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With a two-dimensional (2D) optical mask at λ=1083 nm, nanoscale patterns are created for the first time in an atom lithography process using metastable helium atoms. The internal energy of the atoms is used to locally damage a hydrophobic resist layer, which is removed in a wet etching process. Experiments have been performed with several polarizations for the optical mask, resulting in different intensity patterns, and corresponding nanoscale structures. The results for a linear polarized light field show an array of holes with a diameter of 260 nm, in agreement with a computed pattern. With a circularly polarized light field a line pattern is observed with a spacing of λ/20.5=766 nm. Simulations taking into account many possible experimental imperfections can not explain this pattern.
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