Applied Physics B

, Volume 79, Issue 3, pp 351–358 | Cite as

Superlinear photovoltaic currents in LiNbO3: analyses under the two-center model

  • J. Carnicero
  • O. Caballero
  • M. Carrascosa
  • J.M. Cabrera


Superlinear photovoltaic currents in LiNbO3 are theoretically studied by using a two active center model, with Fe2+/Fe3+ as primary center and NbLi4+/NbLi5+ as secondary center. Analytical instead of numerical results are provided, including close-form expressions for most common experimental situations. Recent photovoltaic parameters obtained for α-phase proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides (very similar to the substrate) are used for applying the model and comparing with published experimental results. Thoroughly studied aspects are: the redistribution of donor/acceptor states for each species as a function of the light intensity, their contribution to the photovoltaic current density, the effect of the temperature, and the role of the center concentrations and their reduction state. This provides a detailed understanding of the photovoltaic current function shapes versus light intensity, predicts new features of interest for experimentalists and suggests further experiments to better determine the material parameters. Photovoltaic measurements and modeling appear a simpler and safer way of understanding the role of the two-center photovoltaic effect in photorefractive phenomena as well as for determining important photorefractive parameters.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A.M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, T.J. Negran: Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Krätzig, O.F. Shirmer: Photorefractive effects and their applications. Vol. 1 Chapt. 5 (Springer Verlag, Berlin 1988)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. Sturman, V. Fridkin, G. Breach:The photovoltaic and photorefractive effects in noncentrosymmetric Materials, Chapt. 3, p. 124, (Science Publishers, Philadelphia 1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.M. Kim, J.G. Gallagher, T.A. Rabson, F.K. Tittel: Appl. Phys. 17, 413 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.S. Cudney, R.M. Pierce, G.D. Bacher, D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg: J. Opt. Soc Am. B 9, 1704 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Jermann, J. Otten: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(11), 2085 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Carrascosa, F. Agulló-López: Appl. Opt. 27, 2851 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Jariego, F. Agulló-López: Appl. Opt. 30, 4615 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Adibi, K. Buse, D. Psaltis: Phys. Rev. A 63, 023813 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Simon, St Wevering, K. Buse, E. Krätzig: J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 30, 144 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. de la Paliza, O. Caballero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, J.M. Cabrera: Appl. Phys. B76, 555 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, J.M. Cabrera: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(8), 1412 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yu.N. Korkishko, V.A. Fedorov, M.P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, A. Leycuras: Appl. Opt. 35, 7056 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y.N. Korkishko, V.A. Fedorov: IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 187 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Méndez, G. de la Paliza, A. García-Cabañes, J.M. Cabrera: Appl. Phys. B 73, 485 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Rams, J.M. Cabrera: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(3), 401 (1999)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Rams, J.M. Cabrera: J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1322 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Alcázar de Velasco, J. Rams, J.M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-López: Appl. Phys. B 68, 989 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Breer, K. Buse, F. Rickermann: Opt. Lett. 23, 73 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Berben, K. Buse, S. Wevering, P. Herth, M. Imlau, Th. Woike: J. Appl. Phys. 87(3), 1034 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J.M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-López: Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Carnicero
    • 1
  • O. Caballero
    • 1
  • M. Carrascosa
    • 1
  • J.M. Cabrera
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Física de Materiales C-IV Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations