Applied Physics B

, Volume 79, Issue 3, pp 331–339

Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers

Article

Abstract

Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) devices have become a key component of ultrafast passive mode-locked laser sources. Here we describe in more detail how the key SESAM parameters such as saturation fluence, modulation depth, and nonsaturable losses are measured with a high accuracy. These parameters need to be known and controlled to obtain stable pulse generation for a given laser. A high-precision, wide dynamic range setup is required to measure this nonlinear reflectivity of saturable absorbers. The challenge to measure a low modulation depth and key measures necessary to obtain an accurate calibration are described in detail. The model function for the nonlinear reflectivity is based on a simple two-level travelling wave system. We include spatial beam profiles, nonsaturable losses and higher-order absorption, such as two-photon absorption and other induced absorption. Guidelines to extract the key parameters from the measured data are given.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    U. Keller: Nature 424, 831 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    U. Keller: Prog. Opt. 46, (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    U. Keller, D.A.B. Miller, G.D. Boyd, T.H. Chiu, J.F. Ferguson, M.T. Asom: Opt. Lett. 17, 505 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi: Opt. Lett. 24, 631 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Innerhofer, T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, R. Häring, A. Aschwanden, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, C. Hönninger, M. Kumkar: Opt. Lett. 28, 367 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, S. Lecomte, M. Moser, K.J. Weingarten, U. Keller: IEEE J. Quant. Elect. QE-38, 1331 (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, R. Fluck, B. Braun, M. Moser, G. Zhang, E. Gini, U. Keller: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 376 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G.J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, M.P. Kullberg, M. Graf, M. Moser, E. Mix, G. Huber, C. Harder, U. Keller: Appl. Phys. B 72, 285 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Fluck, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, H. Melchior, U. Keller: Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3273 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Häring, R. Paschotta, R. Fluck, E. Gini, H. Melchior, U. Keller: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1805 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    U. Keller, K.J. Weingarten, F.X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I.D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au: IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 2, 435 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    U. Siegner, U. Keller: In Handbook of Optics, Vol. III, M. Bass (ed.), E.W. Stryland, D.R. Williams, W.L. Wolfe (McGRAW-HILL, NY 2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. Liverini, S. Schön, R. Grange, M. Haiml, S.C. Zeller, U. Keller: Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4002 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.D. Sun, G.J. Valentine, R. Macaluso, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M.D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, M. Pessa: Opt. Lett. 27, 2124 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    U. Keller, W.H. Knox, H. Roskos: Opt. Lett. 15, 1377 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    U. Keller, T.H. Chiu: IEEE J. Quant. Elect. QE-28, 1710 (1992)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    U. Keller: Appl. Phys. B 58, 347 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L.R. Brovelli, U. Keller, T.H. Chiu: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 311 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    I.D. Jung, L.R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, U. Keller, M. Moser: Opt. Lett. 20, 1559 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L.R. Brovelli, I.D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F.X. Kärtner, U. Keller: Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Tsuda, W.H. Knox, E. A. d. Souza, W.Y. Jan, J.E. Cunningham: Opt. Lett. 20, 1406 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Fluck, I.D. Jung, G. Zhang, F.X. Kärtner, U. Keller: Opt. Lett. 21, 743 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    I.D. Jung, F.X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D.H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, U. Keller: Appl. Phys. B65, 137 (1997)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Schön, M. Haiml, L. Gallmann, U. Keller: Opt. Lett. 27, 1845 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Schön, M. Haiml, U. Keller: Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 782 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    U. Keller, D. Kopf: US Patent No. 6466604, (priority date 19 May 1995)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Kopf, G. Zhang, R. Fluck, M. Moser, U. Keller: Opt. Lett. 21, 486 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W.H. Knox: US patent No. 5627854 (priority date 15 March 1995)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Paschotta, G.J. Spühler, D.H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, U. Keller, M. Moser, R. Hövel, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi: Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2166 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K.J. Weingarten, G.J. Spühler, U. Keller, L. Krainer: US patent No. 6538298 (priority date 10. Dec. 2001)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    B. Braun, F.X. Kärtner, U. Keller, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber: Opt. Lett. 21, 405 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G.J. Spühler, M. Moser, U. Keller: Electron. Lett. 35, 1160 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, M. Moser, U. Keller: Electron. Lett. 36, 1846 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R.C. Sharp, D.E. Spock, N. Pan, J. Elliot: Opt. Lett. 21, 881 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    G.J. Spühler, S. Reffert, M. Haiml, M. Moser, U. Keller: Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2733 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    I.P. Bilinsky, J.G. Fujimoto, J.N. Walpole, L.J. Missaggia: Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2411 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Schlatter, S.C. Zeller, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, U. Keller: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 (August 2004)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    T.R. Schibli, E.R. Thoen, F.X. Kärtner, E.P. Ippen: Appl. Phys. B 70, 41 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, E.W.V. Stryland: IEEE J. Quant. Elect. QE-26, 760 (1990)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G.P. Agrawal, N.A. Olsson: IEEE J. Quant. Elect. QE-25, 2297 (1989)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A.E. Siegman: Lasers (University Science Books, California 1986)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R.C. Lutz, P. Specht, E.R. Weber: Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    E.R. Thoen, E.M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T.R. Schibli, F.X. Kärtner, E.P. Ippen, L.A. Kolodziejski: Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Physics Department/Institute of Quantum ElectronicsETH Zurich Hoenggerberg HPTZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations