Applied Physics A

, 125:753 | Cite as

A novel porous silicon multi-ions selective electrode based extended gate field effect transistor for sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium sensor

  • E. A. KabaaEmail author
  • S. A. Abdulateef
  • Naser M. AhmedEmail author
  • Z. Hassan
  • Fayroz A. Sabah


One of the most informative parameters of the bio-chemical sensors is the multi-ions selectivity. Characterizing the biocompatible materials with high sensitivity and efficiency for the immobilization and detection of bio-signals and conversion of biochemical signal into quantifiable electronic signal is very important in biosensor research. Extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) based on porous silicon (PS) n-type (111) was characterized as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium sensor over the concentration ranges 10−4 to 1 M of the four cations at room temperature. This study extracted the sensitivity of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in terms of current/voltage sensitivity. Separate Solution Method was used to concept of PS response which suggest a single constant value of the potentiometric selectivity coefficient (\(K_{A,B}^{\text{pot}}\)). Regarding EGFET operation, PS manifested significantly enhanced Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ voltage sensitivity of 58.76, 57.91, 34.90, and 31.75 mV/dec, respectively, and they are very close to the theoretical value of Nernst. Moreover, the Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ current sensitivity was of 1.09, 1.04, 0.54, and 0.52 (µA)1/2/dec. PS showed high Na+ selectivity towards K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The results showed the values of the current/voltage sensitivity have high linearity. Using of PS n-type (111) as multi-ions sensor, and extracting the sensitivity of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in terms of IDS were not reported in the literature.



The authors would like to thank the School of Physics at USM University for supporting this research and providing the appropriate research environment. Our gratitude also goes to the RCMO USM, for supporting us with the Bridging grant (304.PFIZIK.6316276).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR)Universiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.College of MedicineAl Iraqia UniversityBaghdadIraq
  3. 3.School of PhysicsUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

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