Effect of doping concentration and annealing temperature on nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films: an investigation through spectroscopic techniques
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Undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO (NZO) thin films were deposited by sol–gel spin-coating technique on glass substrates. The thin film preparation was accomplished using zinc acetate dihydrate, monoethanolamine and 2-methoxyethanol as the precursors. Ammonium acetate was used as the source of nitrogen for doping. The effect of dopants and the post-heating temperature on the various physical properties of the deposited films was explored. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal the polycrystalline nature of the films which possess a preferred c-axis orientation. Raman characterizations of the films show a clear indication of nitrogen incorporation in the films. The carrier concentration of the thin films was of the order of 1017/cm3 and resistivity as minimum as 0.371 Ω cm was observed for 1 at.% NZO thin films post-heated at 500 °C. The 1 at.% and 2 at.% doped NZO films post-heated at 300 °C and 1 at.%, 2 at.% and 3 at.% doped NZO films with post-heat treatment at 500 °C exhibited p-type conductivity. In the aging study, 500 °C annealed films retained p-type conductivity for 5 days.
The authors thank Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore for providing Raman Characterization facility and Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, for other characterization facilities.
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