Applied Physics A

, 125:181 | Cite as

Study of Ga+ implantation in Si diodes: effect on optoelectronic properties using micro-spectroscopy

  • Preeti DeshpandeEmail author
  • Subramanian Vilayurganapathy
  • K. N. Bhat
  • Ambarish GhoshEmail author


Ion implantation has been widely used in various device fabrication applications, including that of optoelectronic components. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is an especially versatile implantation method, since it can be used for well controlled doping with sub-micron spatial precision. Here, we report FIB induced gallium doping in micrometer-sized regions on shallow Silicon p-n junction devices and its effect on the device optoelectronic properties investigated through micro-spectroscopic measurements. The effect of varying dose levels has been quantified in terms of photo voltage, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and reflectance measurements to investigate the effect of radiation damage and surface amorphization. Based on these observations we report simultaneous occurrence of two scenarios, channeling of high-energy gallium ions beyond the junction depth, as well as formation of an amorphous silicon layer, which cumulatively degrade the optoelectronic properties of the diodes.


Supplementary material

339_2019_2467_MOESM1_ESM.docx (94 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 93 KB)


  1. 1.
    P. Das Kanungo, R. Kögler, P. Werner, U. Gösele, W. Skorupa, A novel method to fabricate silicon nanowire p-n junctions by a combination of ion implantation and in-situ doping. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 5(1), 243–246 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Wesch, B. Glaser, G. Götz, H. Karge, R. Prager, Correlation between structural defects and optical properties in ion-implanted silicon. Phys. Status Solidi 65(1), 225–232 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. König, Focused ion beam implantation for opto- and microelectronic devices. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 16(4), 2562 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.J. Steckl, Review of focused ion beam implantation mixing for the fabrication of GaAs-based optoelectronic devices. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 13(6), 2570 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.C. Du, L. Fu, H.H. Tan, C. Jagadish, Investigation of ion implantation induced intermixing in InP based quaternary quantum wells. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(47), 475105 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, Focused ion-beam implantation induced thermal quantum-well intermixing for monolithic optoelectronic device integration. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(4), 595–605 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z. Xu, Recent developments in focused ion beam and its application in nanotechnology. Curr. Nanosci. 12, 696–711 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Reyntjens, R. Puers, A review of focused ion beam applications in microsystems technology. J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(4), 287–300 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Chu, Y.F. Hsieh, L.R. Harriott, H.H. Wade, Structural damage induced by Ga+ focused ion beam implantation in (001) Si. 9, 3451 (1991)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Tamura, S. Shukuri, M. Moniwa, Focused ion beam gallium implantation into silicon. Appl. Phys. A Solids Surfac. 39, 183–190 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y.J. Xiao, F.Z. Fang, Z.W. Xu, W. Wu, X.C. Shen, The study of Ga+ FIB implanting crystal silicon and subsequent annealing. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 307, 253–256, 2013ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.D. Henry, M.J. Shearn, B. Chhim, A. Scherer, Ga+ beam lithography for nanoscale silicon reactive ion etching. Nanotechnology 21(24), 245303 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Chekurov, K. Grigoras, A. Peltonen, S. Franssila, I. Tittonen, The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by local gallium implantation and cryogenic deep reactive ion etching. Nanotechnology 20(6), 065307 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.D. Townsend, Optical effects of ion implantation. Reports Prog. Phys. 50, 501–558 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Vallini, L.A.M. Barea, E.F. dos Reis, A.A. von Zuben, N.C. Frateschi, Induced optical losses in optoelectronic devices due focused ion beam damages. J. Integr. Circuits Syst. 7(2), 87–91 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    V.N. Bhoraskar, “Irradiation effects in semiconductor. Bull. Mater. Sci. 20(4), 385–389 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.S. Bhave, V.N. Bhoraskar, Irradiation effects of high energy heavy ions on the switching characteristics of pn junction diodes. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 127, 383–387 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Nano Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Electrical Communication EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  4. 4.Raman Research InstituteBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations