Electrical properties and scaling studies of Na3+x ZrxSc2−x(PO4)3 glass ceramic electrolyte for use in Na-ion batteries
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Na-ion conducting Na3+x[ZrxSc2−x(PO4)3] (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mol%) glass samples with NASICON-type phase were synthesized by melt quenching method and glass–ceramics were formed by heat treating the precursor glasses at their crystallization temperatures. The major and minor crystalline phases such as [Na3Sc2(PO4)3 (ICSD-27740) (NASICON), ZrP2O7 (ICSD-15084), ZrO2 (ICSD-66781) and Zr2O(PO4)2 (ICSD-1922)] are precipitated in all the glass–ceramic samples. The best bulk conductivity has been observed for Na3.5Zr0.5Sc1.5(PO4)3 glass–ceramic sample (σb = 1.92 × 10−4 S/cm) which exhibits lowest activation energy of 0.492 eV. The single master curve in the scaling analysis revealed that this glass samples show evidence of temperature-independent conduction transport mechanism.
This work has been funded by Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Govt. of INDIA, Grant no.: 34/14/06/2018-BRNS/34082. The authors thank Dr. K.S Rama Rao, Sr. Principal Scientist, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India for kindly extending the facility to acquire SEM micrographs.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interest.
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