Applied Physics A

, 125:83 | Cite as

A multifunctional blade-coated ZnO seed layer for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

  • Khalid MahmoodEmail author
  • Madsar Hameed
  • Faisal Rehman
  • Arshi Khalid
  • Muhammad Imran
  • Muhammad Taqi Mehran
Rapid communication


ZnO as an electron transport layer (ETL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has many benefits, including high mobility and low-temperature processability. ETL based on blade-coated ZnO nanorods is investigated for highly efficient hybrid PSCs for the first time. The ETL consisting of blade-coated ZnO nanorords demonstrates the best power conversion efficiency (PCEbest) of 16.56%, compared to ZnO nanorods grown on spin-coated ZnO films (PCEbest of 13.78%). We presume that development of perovskite devices based on blade-coated ZnO nanorods will yield an inexpensive, scalable and simple route towards improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells for future commercialization.

Graphical abstract

An ETL composed of blade-coated ZnO nanorods is studied for the first time, in detail, for hybrid perovskite solar cells leading to power conversion efficiency above 16.56%.



We sincerely acknowledge the financial support from the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.

Supplementary material

339_2019_2383_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1360 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khalid Mahmood
    • 1
    Email author
  • Madsar Hameed
    • 1
  • Faisal Rehman
    • 1
  • Arshi Khalid
    • 2
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 3
  • Muhammad Taqi Mehran
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Polymer EngineeringUniversity of Engineering and Technology LahoreFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Humanities and Basic SciencesUniversity of Engineering and Technology LahoreFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringPakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied SciencesIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.School of Chemical and Materials EngineeringNational University of Sciences and Technology NUSTIslamabadPakistan

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