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Applied Physics A

, 124:792 | Cite as

Influence of post-deposition annealing on the chemical states of crystalline tantalum pentoxide films

  • Israel PerezEmail author
  • Víctor Sosa
  • Fidel Gamboa
  • José Trinidad Elizalde Galindo
  • José L. Enríquez-Carrejo
  • Rurik Farías
  • Pierre Giovanni Mani González
Article

Abstract

We investigate the effect of post-deposition annealing (for temperatures from 848 K to 1273 K) on the chemical properties of crystalline \(\hbox {Ta}_2\hbox {O}_5\) films grown on Si(100) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The atomic arrangement, as determined by X-ray diffraction, is predominately hexagonal (\(\delta -\hbox {Ta}_2\hbox {O}_5\)) for the films exposed to heat treatments at 948 K and 1048 K; orthorhombic (\(\beta -\hbox {Ta}_2\hbox {O}_5\)) for samples annealed at 1148 K and 1273 K; and amorphous for samples annealed at temperatures below 948 K. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for Ta 4f and O 1s core levels were performed to evaluate the chemical properties of all films as a function of annealing temperature. Upon analysis, it is observed the Ta 4f spectrum characteristic of Ta in \(\hbox {Ta}^{5+}\) and the formation of Ta-oxide phases with oxidation states \(\hbox {Ta}^{1+}\), \(\hbox {Ta}^{2+}\), \(\hbox {Ta}^{3+}\), and \(\hbox {Ta}^{4+}\). The study reveals that the increase in annealing temperature increases the percentage of the state \(\hbox {Ta}^{5+}\) and the reduction of the others indicating that higher temperatures are more desirable to produce \(\hbox {Ta}_2\hbox {O}_5\), however, there seems to be an optimal annealing temperature that maximizes the O% to Ta% ratio. We found that at 1273 K the ratio slightly reduces suggesting oxygen depletion.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Wilian Cauich and Daniel Aguilar for their technical support during the XPS and XRD sessions. Dr. Israel Perez is indebted to Dr. Alberto Herrera for helpful discussions and technical support in the XPS analysis. We also thank the anonymous reviewer and one of the editors of this journal for their comments that greatly improved the quality of this work. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) Mexico and the program Cátedras CONACYT through Project 3035.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT)-Institute of Engineering and TechnologyUniversidad Autónoma de Ciudad JuárezJuárezMexico
  2. 2.Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV Unidad MéridaMéridaMexico
  3. 3.Institute of Engineering and TechnologyUniversidad Autónoma de Ciudad JuárezJuárezMexico

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