2D materials in electro-optic modulation: energy efficiency, electrostatics, mode overlap, material transfer and integration
- 158 Downloads
Here we discuss the physics of electro-optic modulators deploying 2D materials. We include a scaling laws analysis and show how energy-efficiency and speed change for three underlying cavity systems as a function of critical device length scaling. A key result is that the energy-per-bit of the modulator is proportional to the volume of the device, thus making the case for submicron-scale modulators possible deploying a plasmonic optical mode. We then show how Graphene’s Pauli-blocking modulation mechanism is sensitive to the device operation temperature, whereby a reduction of the temperature enables a 10× reduction in modulator energy efficiency. Furthermore, we show how the high-index tunability of graphene is able to compensate for the small optical overlap factor of 2D-based material modulators, which is unlike classical silicon-based dispersion devices. Lastly, we demonstrate a novel method towards a 2D material printer suitable for cross-contamination free and on-demand printing. The latter paves the way to integrate 2D materials seamlessly into taped-out photonic chips.
V.S., L.B are supported by the National Science Foundation under award number NSF DMREF 1436330. V.S. and R.A. are supported by the Army Research Office under contract number W911NF-16-2-0194.
- 1.S.K. Pickus, S. Khan, C. Ye, Z. Li, V.J. Sorger, Silicon plasmon modulators: breaking photonic limits. IEEE Photon. Soc. 27, 6 (2013)Google Scholar
- 2.K. Liu, Z.R. Li, S. Khan, C. Ye, V.J. Sorger, Ultra-fast electro-optic modulators for high-density photonic integration. Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 11–15 (2015)Google Scholar
- 8.D.A.B. Miller, Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects. Opt. Express 20, A293–A308 (2012)Google Scholar
- 10.J. Martinez et al., Transport properties of CVD grown TMDs on Flat and patterned substrates. In: APS March Meeting Abstracts (2015)Google Scholar
- 13.S. Sun et al., The case for hybrid photonic plasmonic interconnects (HyPPIs): low-latency energy-and-area- efficient on-chip interconnects. IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–14 (2015)Google Scholar