The modeling and synthesis of nanodiamonds by laser ablation of graphite and diamond-like carbon in liquid-confined ambient
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Nanodiamonds have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in quantum computation, sensing, and bioimaging. However, synthesis of nanodiamonds typically requires high pressures and temperatures, and is still a challenge. Here, we demonstrate production of nanodiamonds by pulsed laser ablation of graphite and diamond-like carbon in water. Importantly, this technique enables production of nanocrystalline diamonds at room temperature and standard pressure conditions. Moreover, we propose a method for the purification of nanodiamonds from graphitic and amorphous carbon phases that do not require strong acids and harsh chemical conditions. Finally, we present a thermodynamic model that describes the formation of nanodiamonds during pulsed laser ablation. We show that synthesis of the crystalline phase is driven by a graphite–liquid–diamond transition process that occurs at the extreme thermodynamic conditions reached inside the ablation plume.
- 21.D. Kraus, A. Ravasio, M. Gauthier, D.O. Gericke, J. Vorberger, S. Frydrych, J. Helfrich, L.B. Fletcher, G. Schaumann, B. Nagler, B. Barbrel, B. Bachmann, E.J. Gamboa, S. Goede, E. Granados, G. Gregori, H.J. Lee, P. Neumayer, W. Schumaker, T. Doeppner, R.W. Falcone, S.H. Glenzer, M. Roth, Nat. Commun. 7, 10970 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar